Topic outline

  • Well Stimulation

    This course covers systematic techniques on well stimulation for petroleum industry professionals who are involved in the important activities of reservoir evaluation, development and management and for those who require invaluable skills in the application of the techniques described for the successful exploitation of oil and gas reservoirs.
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on cost management and maintenance management
      Describe formation damage, damage characterization, areas of damage, fines migration and clay swelling Discuss mineral scale-related production loss, solubility of various minerals, scale deposition, common ions in formation brines and the scaling process
      Identify the various types of iron scales and the factors governing paraffin and asphaltene deposition Characterize organic deposits and discuss mixed deposits and bacteria, induced-particle plugging and damage sample testing and diagnosis
      Recognize the effect of formation damage on well production and the sources and origins of formation damage Describe the typical relationships between mud type, cost and risk of formation damage
      Illustrate fluid loss during the drilling process and explain the formation damage mechanisms during drilling Identify pore size dimensions and the combined interaction between the factors which affect the solids and filtrate invasion profile into the formation
      Discuss perforations, the origins of formation damage stimulation, stimulation, injection and well productivity Explain Darcy's law for radial flow into a wellbore and illustrate linear flow model
      Apply formation damage characterization & prevention and recognize the risks of formation damage, completion productivity, drilling damage, perforation damage and fluids damage Maximize well productivity and carryout drilling fluid selection, perforating, selection and treatment of completion fluids and stimulation
      Implement key considerations in selecting stimulation method and identify completion and workover fluids, basic workover fluid functions and types of fluids Illustrate optimum completion design procedure, classify formation and determine perforating under-balance to overcome total skin damage
      Employ nodal analysis, acidizing techniques, economic formation stimulation, matrix acidizing and acid fracturing Apply oil well stimulation, hydraulic fracturing stimulation, fracturing treatment selection and laboratory tests of formation samples for fracturing treatment guidelines
      Recognize hydraulic fracturing fluids and apply porosity and permeability tests, oil compatibility tests, gel break tests and fracture conductivity tests Identify the physical properties of proppants and carryout fracture orientation, core testing, dynamic down-hole testing and fracture geometry and orientation evaluation
      Select design variables and analyze bottomhole treating pressure Carryout post-fracture well-test analysis, bilinear flow analysis procedure, linear flow analysis procedure, pseudoradial flow analysis procedure and type-curve analysis
      Discuss damaged-fracture type curve and the limitations of type curve analysis Apply well stimulation, stimulation economics candidate selection, fracture gradient determination and evaluation of stimulation job
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of well stimulation. It covers the formation damage, damage characterization, areas of damage, fines migration and clay swelling; the mineral scale-related production loss, solubility of various minerals, scale deposition, common ions in formation brines and the scaling process; the various types of iron scales and the factors governing paraffin and asphaltene deposition; the organic deposits, mixed deposits and bacteria; the induced-particle plugging and damage sample testing and diagnosis; the effect of formation damage on well production; and the sources and origins of formation damage
        Further, the course will also discuss the typical relationships between mud type, cost and risk of formation damage; the fluid loss during the drilling process; the formation damage mechanisms during drilling; the pore size dimensions and the combined interaction between the factors which affect the solids and filtrate invasion profile into the formation; the perforations, origins of formation damage stimulation, injection and well productivity; the Darcy's law for radial flow into a wellbore; the linear flow model; and the formation damage characterization and prevention
        During this course, participants will learn the risks of formation damage, completion productivity, drilling damage, perforation damage and fluids damage; the well productivity, drilling fluid selection, perforating, selection and treatment of completion fluids and stimulation; the key considerations in selecting stimulation method; the completion and workover fluids, basic workover fluid functions and types of fluids; the optimum completion design procedure and perforating under-balance to overcome total skin damage; the nodal analysis, acidizing techniques, economic formation stimulation, matrix acidizing and acid fracturing; the oil well stimulation, hydraulic fracturing stimulation, fracturing treatment selection and laboratory tests of formation samples for fracturing treatment guidelines; the hydraulic fracturing fluids, porosity and permeability tests, oil compatibility tests, gel break tests and fracture conductivity tests; the physical properties of proppants, fracture orientation, core testing, dynamic down-hole testing and fracture geometry and orientation evaluation; the design variables and bottomhole treating pressure; the post-fracture well-test analysis, bilinear flow analysis procedure, linear flow analysis procedure, pseudoradial flow analysis procedure and type-curve analysis; the damaged-fracture type curve and the limitations of type curve analysis; and the well stimulation, stimulation economics candidate selection, fracture gradient determination and evaluation of stimulation job
        • Module 1 - Formation Damage Overview Part 1

          Contents:
            • Organization
            • Damage Characterization
            • Areas of Damage 
            • Fines Migration & Clay Swelling
            • Migratory Silt and Clay
            • Silt and Clays = Fines 
            • Fines Migration 
            • Swelling Clays:  Smectite 
            • How are Clays Identified? 
            • Problems Associated
            • Scales
            • Mineral Scale-Related Production Loss 
            • Solubility of Various Minerals (in Distilled Water) 
            • Scale Deposition 
            • Incompatible Waters 
            • Common Ions in Formation Brines 
            • The Scaling Process 
            • Calcium Carbonate Precipitation 
            • Calcium Sulfate 
            • Barium Sulfate Precipitation 
            • Types of Iron Scales 
            • Iron Scale Precipitation
            • Scales Sources 
            • Organic Deposits
            • Paraffin-Related Production Loss 
            • Factors Governing Paraffin Deposition 
            • Asphaltene Deposition 
            • Asphalt Tars 
            • Sludge
            • Factors Governing Asphaltene Deposition
            • Characteristics of Organic Deposits 
            • Mixed Deposits & Bacteria 
            • Induced-Particle Plugging
            • Damage Sample Testing and Diagnosis 
            • Emulsion
            • Wettability Changes 
            • Relative Permeability: Oil & Water Wet Formation
            • Water Block 
            • The Formation Damage Skin
            • Sources of Formation Damage 
            • Drilling / Cementing / Completion
            • Skin
            • Drilling 
            • Origins of Formation Damage (Drilling) 
            • Question: Which Mud Gives Better Production?
            • Answer
            • Formation Damage Mechanisms During Drilling
            • The Magnitude of Permeability Reduction from Both Types of Formation/Fluid Interaction Will Depend On
            • Pore Size Dimensions
            • Combined Interaction Between the Factors Which Affect the Solids and Filtrate Invasion Profile Into the Formation
            • Origins of Formation Damage (Cementing) (Limited Invasion Due to Time and Fluid Composition Effects)
            • Formation Damage During Cementing
            • Video: Formation Damaged
            • Well Geometry Skin (Sgeometry)
            • Completion Skin (Scomp)
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Formation Damage Overview Part 2

            Contents:
              • Perforations
              • Origins of Formation Damage (Completion/Workover Fluids)
              • Formation Damage: Production and Profitability
              • Dew and Bubble Point Issues: Pressure and Rate
              • Origins of Formation Damage Stimulation
              • Origins of Formation Damage (Injection Operations)
              • Summary: Damage Characterization
              • Corrosion
              • Video: Advancements in Corrosion Detection
              • Idealized Production Behaviour of an Oilfield
              • Actual Production Behaviour of an Oilfield
              • Well Productivity
              • Darcy's Law for Radial flow into a Wellbore
              • Linear Flow Model
              • Permeability Averages for Radial Flow
              • Productivity Ratio
              • Class Problem # 1
              • Solution
              • Production Engineering
              • New Curve
              • IPR
              • What Affects IPR?
              • Effect of Skin on IPR
              • Effect of Pressure Depletion on IPR
              • Why we do this?
              • System Graph – Nodal Analysis
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Formation Damage Characterization & Prevention Part 1

              Contents:
                • Risks of Formation Damage
                • Completion Productivity
                • Drilling Damage
                • Perforation Damage
                • Video: Permeability, wellbore damage & barrier effects evaluation using DST
                • Fluids Damage
                • Sand Fill
                • Maximizing Well Productivity
                • Drilling Fluid Selection
                • Perforating
                • Selection and Treatment of Completion Fluids
                • Stimulation
                • Key Considerations in Selecting Stimulation Method 
                • Collapse Loads
                • Completion and Workover Fluids
                • Basic Workover Fluid Functions
                • Types of Fluids
                • Prepared Salt Water
                • Optimum Completion Design 
                • Formation Definitions
                • Completion Design Procedure
                • Classify Formation
                • Determining Perforating Under-Balance to Overcome Total Skin Damage
                • Underbalance Used on TCP in Oil Zones in Sandstone
                • System Graph – Nodal Analysis
                • Outflow Vertical Lift Performance
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Formation Damage Characterization & Prevention Part 2

                Contents:
                  • VLP
                  • Composite Specific Gravity
                  • Pressure Gradient
                  • Exercise 1A
                  • Exercise 1B
                  • VLP - Friction Loss
                  • Out Flow Performance
                  • Let’s Combine IPR with VLP
                  • System Graph
                  • Example
                  • Result
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation

                  Contents:
                    • Four Steps of Treatment and Their Respective Functions
                    • Surface Equipment Layout
                    • Fracture Geometry
                    • Fracture Width Equations
                    • Fracturing Treatment Selection
                    • Laboratory Tests Of Formation Samples For Fracturing Treatment Guidelines 
                    • Description of Tests and Core Needed
                    • Formation Properties Affecting the Orientation and Growth Pattern of Hydraulic Fractures
                    • Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids 
                    • Storage and Mixing Requirements
                    • Horizontal versus Vertical Fracture
                    • Video: Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Hydraulic Fracturing Part 1

                    Contents:
                      • Introduction
                      • Fracture Initiation
                      • Fracture Extension
                      • Fracture Geometry
                      • Fluid Injection Into the Fracture
                      • Volume Efficiency of a Hydraulic Fracture
                      • Fluid Flow Along the Fracture Length
                      • Fluid Leakoff
                      • Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids 
                      • Structural and Chemical Analysis of Formation Samples
                      • Porosity and Permeability Tests
                      • Fluid Flow Tests
                      • X-Ray Diffraction Analysis
                      • Evaluating Fluid-Rock Interactions
                      • Regained Gas Permeability Tests
                      • Evaluating Fluid Properties
                      • Oil Compatibility Tests
                      • Gel Break Tests
                      • Fracture Conductivity Tests
                      • Factors Influencing Hydrocarbon Production
                      • Cementing Material in Sandstones
                      • Fluid Retention
                      • Iron Compounds
                      • Fluid Residue
                      • Clays
                      • Fracture Conductivity
                      • Fines in the Fracture
                      • Gel Filter Cake Residue
                      • Chemical and Fracturing Fluid Properties
                      • Fracturing Polymers
                      • Guar
                      • Cellulose Derivatives
                      • Polyacrylamides
                      • Cross-linking Agents
                      • Video: Hydraulic Fracturing Process
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Hydraulic Fracturing Part 2

                      Contents:
                        • pH Control Chemicals
                        • Gel Breakers
                        • Surfactants
                        • Wetting Properties
                        • Emulsions
                        • Foams
                        • Clay Stabilizers
                        • Alcohol
                        • Biocides
                        • Fluid Loss Additives
                        • Summary
                        • Hydraulic Fracturing Proppants
                        • Proppant Movement
                        • Video: SandBank™ Proppant Silo System
                        • Tail-in Using Thin Fluids
                        • Suspended Proppants
                        • Physical Properties of Proppants
                        • Acid Solubility
                        • Silt and Fine Particles
                        • Crush Resistance
                        • Fracture Conductivity Test
                        • Fracture Closure Stress
                        • Proppant Bed Damage
                        • Module Quiz
                      • Module 8 - Hydraulic Fracturing Part 3

                        Contents:
                          • Pretreatment Data Requirements
                          • Various Sources of Data
                          • Fracture Geometry and Orientation Evaluation
                          • Logging Considerations for Fracture Geometry
                          • Fracture Orientation
                          • Core Testing
                          • Dynamic Down-hole Testing
                          • Video: ProOne Downhole Drilling Fluid Test
                          • Conclusions
                          • Production Increase
                          • Calculations for Vertical Fracture Production Increase
                          • Calculating the Production Increase Ratio
                          • High-pressure Pumping Equipment
                          • Surface Lines and Manifolding
                          • Control Center
                          • Practical Fracturing Treatment Design
                          • Fracture Design Variables
                          • Selecting Design Variables
                          • Analysis of Bottomhole Treating Pressure
                          • Real-time Treating Pressure Analysis in Field Operations
                          • Minifracturing
                          • Step-rate Tests
                          • Pump-in / Flow back Test
                          • Postfrac Analysis
                          • Inadequate Initial Response
                          • Rapid Production Decline
                          • Pump-in/Shut-in Tests
                          • Module Quiz
                        • Module 9 - Hydraulically Fractured Wells

                          Contents:
                            • Ideal Hydraulic Fracture
                            • Flow Regimes in Fractures
                            • Fracture Linear Flow
                            • Bilinear Flow
                            • Formation Linear Flow
                            • Elliptical Flow
                            • Pseudoradial Flow
                            • Estimate Flow Period Duration 
                            • Depth of Investigation
                            • Hydraulic Fracture With Choked Fracture Damage
                            • Hydraulic Fracture With Fracture Face Damage
                            • Post-Fracture Well-Test Analysis
                            • Bilinear Flow Method
                            • Bilinear Flow Analysis Procedure
                            • Bilinear Equivalent Time
                            • Limitations of Bilinear Flow Analysis
                            • Linear Flow Analysis Procedure
                            • Limitations of Linear Flow Analysis
                            • Pseudo radial Flow Diagnostic Plot
                            • Pseudo radial Flow Analysis Procedure
                            • Limitations of Pseudo radial Flow Analysis
                            • Type-Curve Analysis: Dimensionless Variables
                            • Type-Curve Analysis: Hydraulically Fractured Wells
                            • Type-Curve Analysis: Interpreting Match Points
                            • Type-Curve Analysis: Cinco Type Curve
                            • Damaged-Fracture Type Curve
                            • Type-Curve Analysis: Wellbore-Storage Type Curve
                            • Limitations of Type Curve Analysis
                            • Stimulation
                            • Well Stimulation
                            • Stimulation Economics Candidate Selection
                            • Financial Data
                            • Fracture Gradient Determination
                            • Summary of Results
                            • Evaluation of Stimulation Job
                          • Post-Test

                            Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.