## Topic outline

### Training Methodology & Objectives

**Training Methodology**__This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-__- Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
- Simulation & Animation
- Exercises
- Videos
- Case Studies
- Gamification (learning through games)
- Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

**Course Objectives****After completing the course, the employee will:-**Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on geophysics Discuss pure (academic) geophysics and applied (geological) geophysics Apply exploration techniques for petroleum and explain the geological concepts Illustrate seismic reflection, seismic refraction and seismic data showing structural variation Carryout magnetic survey using a proton magnetometer, surface exploration, down hole logging surveys and seismic surveys Discuss geology, geophysics, what is the Earth made of and what the Earth does Apply geophysical methods in hydrocarbon exploration and explain the objectives of geophysics Describe the exploration workflow, topography from SRTM and gravity map with seismic lines Measure gravity with differential GPS positioning as well as describe Geosoft GM-SYSTM profile model of salt structure integrating seismic reflection, FTG gravity and magnetic data Recognize seismic overlay with subsurface magnetic map overlay with seismic lines Identify the disturbances in the acceleration including the gravity and magnetics in oil and gas exploration Discuss unique added value, electrical resistivity, electromagnetics and electromagnetic conductivity Perform resistivity survey and electromagnetic surveying as well as review the schematic of electrical resistivity ### Course Description

##### This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of geophysics. It covers the pure (academic) geophysics and applied (geological) geophysics; the exploration techniques for petroleum and geological concepts; the seismic reflection, seismic refraction and seismic data showing structural variation; the magnetic survey using a proton magnetometer, surface exploration, down hole logging surveys and seismic surveys; the geology, geophysics, what is the Earth made of and what the Earth does; the geophysical methods in hydrocarbon exploration; and the objectives of geophysics

##### During this course, participants will learn the exploration workflow, topography from SRTM and gravity map with seismic lines; the gravity with differential GPS positioning; the Geosoft GM-SYSTM profile model of salt structure integrating seismic reflection; the FTG gravity and magnetic data; the seismic overlay with subsurface magnetic map overlay with seismic lines; the disturbances in the acceleration; the gravity and magnetics in oil and gas exploration; the unique added value, electrical resistivity, electromagnetics and electromagnetic conductivity; and the resistivity survey, electromagnetic surveying and the schematic of electrical resistivity

### Module 1 - What is Geophysics?

__Contents:__- Video: What is Geophysics?
- Exploration Technigues for Petroleum
- Exploration and Production Sequence
- Module Quiz

### Module 2 - Geophysics for Other Disciplines

__Contents:__- What is Geophysics?
- Example: Gravity
- Why is Geophysics Useful?
- How Do Geophysicists “Look at” Rocks?
- Geology vs. Geophysics
- Themes
- Geophysical Methods in Hydrocarbon Exploration
- What is Geophysical Exploration?
- Introduction
- Geophysical Methods
- Video: Geophysical Methods: Seismic Refraction & Reflection
- Gravity
- Gravitational
- Magnetic
- Magnetism
- Gravity & Magnetics In Oil & Gas Exploration
- Electrical Resistivity
- Resistivity Survey
- Electromagnetics
- Electrical vs. Seismic:
- Electromagnetic Conductivity
- Schematic of Electrical Resistivity
- Typical Result Chart from Electrical Resistivity Investigation
- Wenner Array
- Module Quiz

- What is Geophysics?
### Module 3 - The Seismic Exploration Method

__Contents:__- Seismic Exploration Categories
- Introduction to the Seismic Exploration Method
- Seismic Geophysical Survey
- Sound as a Tool
- Activity
- Procedure
- Reflection Seismology
- Video: What is Seismic Reflection?
- Remote Sensing and Geophysical Methods - Purpose
- Hydrocarbon Seepage Detection
- 3D Visualisation
- Radar vs. Optical Data
- Heat Flow
- Geophysics and Geology
- Where Seismics May Not be as Effective…
- These Methods are Complementary
- Data Integration
- Applications of Magnetic Methods in Oil And Gas Exploration
- Module Quiz

- Seismic Exploration Categories
### Module 4 - Geophysics

__Contents:__- Waves
- Seismic Waves - Generation
- Video: GCSE Physics - Seismic Waves
- Wavefronts
- Raypaths
- Wavefronts and Raypaths
- Parameters Associated With a Wave
- Wave Types
- Body Waves
- P Waves
- S Waves
- P and S Waves
- Surface Waves
- Rayleigh and Love Waves
- Particle Motion
- Elastic Deformations
- Wave Energy
- Wave Velocity
- Typical P-Wave Velocities
- Huygens Principle
- Interfaces
- Reflections and Refractions
- Critical Refraction
- Mode Conversion
- Reflection and Transmission Coefficient
- Reflection Coefficient
- Critical Angle
- Energy Arrivals
- Multiples
- Ghosts
- Diffractions
- Summary
- Module Quiz

- Waves
### Module 5 - Geophysical Exploration

__Contents:__- Geophysical Sciences
- Study Topic Examples in Geophysical Sciences:
- Applied Geophysics
- Examples in Applied Geophysics:
- Introduction to Geophysical Methods:
- What do we Mean by Applied Geophysics?
- Video: Introduction and scope of Geophysics and Applied Geophysics
- Active and Passive
- Our Scale
- Planning a Survey
- Target Identification
- Examples: Magnetics
- Examples: Seismic Reflection
- Examples: Ground Penetrating Radar
- Techniques and Targets
- Profiling vs. Mapping
- Station Spacing
- Limitations
- Multiple Methods To Improve Uniqueness and Cross-Check Interpretations
- Summaries and Examples of Other Methods
- Examples: Gravity
- Examples: Seismic Refraction
- Examples: Electrical Resistivity
- Resistivity Survey
- Examples: Electromagnetic Surveying
- Gravity: Theory and Measurement
- Theory of Gravity
- Variations in g
- The Geoid
- Gravity and Potentials
- Relating g to U
- Gravity Anomalies
- Units for g
- Rock Density
- Factors Influencing Rock Density
- Measuring g: Absolute and Relative
- Measuring g: Absolute Gravity
- Measuring g: Stable Gravimeter
- Measuring g: Unstable Gravimeter
- Gravity Surveying g: Survey Design
- Gravity Surveying: Drift
- Gravity Surveying: Correcting for Drift
- Gravity: Corrections and Analysis
- Latitude Correction
- Free-Air Correction
- Bouguer Correction
- Terrain Correction
- Free-Air Anomaly
- Bouguer Anomaly
- Field Determination of Density
- Analysis and Interpretation
- Buried Sphere
- Gravity Anomaly Map
- Simple Shape Anomalies
- 2D Vertical Column
- Ambiguity - 1
- Ambiguity - 2
- Gravity: Analysis Examples
- Isolating Gravity Anomalies
- Regional Trend Removal
- Removing Noise
- Noise Removed
- Wavelength Filtering: Spatial Domain
- Wavelength Filtering: Wave Number Domain
- Continuation Filters
- Derivative Filters
- Methodology of Interpretation: General Approach
- Module of Interpretation: Forward Modeling
- Methodology of Interpretation: Inverse Modeling
- Examples: Salt Dome
- Examples: Fault Location
- Examples: Mapping Basin Depth
- Module Quiz

### Module 6 - An Introduction to Applied Geophysics Magnetic Methods

__Contents:__- Magnetic Methods: Concepts and Rock Properties
- History of the Magnetic Method
- Applications
- Definitions: Magnetic Potential
- Definitions: Magnetic Field or Flux Density
- Definitions: Magnetic Field Strength or Intensity
- Dipole Nature of Magnetic Materials
- Magnetization or Magnetic Polarization
- Magnetic Moment
- Units
- Basic Comparison of Magnetic andGravitational Potential
- Video: Difference between Gravity Magnetic and Siesmic Survey
- Earth Dipolar Field
- Total Force, Inclination and Declination
- Geomagnetic Reference Field
- Secular Variation: Slow Changes in PolarLocation
- Induced magnetization (J1) and Magnetic Susceptibility
- Cause of Magnetic Susceptibility
- Classifications of Magnetic Materials
- Magnetic Properties
- Remanent Magnetization (RM)
- Total Magnetization
- Magnetic Properties of Materials of Interest
- Instruments and Surveying
- Induced magnetization (JI) and Magnetic Susceptibility
- Cause of Magnetic Susceptibility
- Concept of Hysteresis
- Remanent Magnetization (RM)
- Acquisition of Magnetic Data
- Flux Gate Magnetometer
- Proton Precession Magnetometer
- Alkali Vapor Magnetometer
- Magnetic Gradiometer
- Ground Surveys
- Magnetic Cleanliness
- Airborne Surveys
- Data Processing
- Diurnal Correction
- Normal Field Correction
- Elevation and Terrain Corrections
- Removal of Regional
- General Guidelines
- Derivatives
- Reduction to Pole
- Analytic Signal
- An Introduction to Applied Geophysics Magnetic Methods
- Magnetic Methods: Interpretation and Applications
- Qualitative Interpretation
- Other Analysis or Filters
- Total Field Anomaly
- Monopole Field
- Interpretation Aspects of a Dipole Field
- Sphere’s as Dipoles
- Slightly More Complex Response - Faults
- Response Due to Simple Shapes
- Depth Determination
- Forward Modeling
- Inverse Modeling
- Biggest Problems in Interpretation
- Ore Body Applications
- Landfill Investigations
- Aecheology
- Module Quiz