Topic outline

  • Waterflooding Management

    This course provides an overview of all significant aspects and considerations of waterflooding management for reservoir and production engineers, technical staff and geoscientists with interest in improved oil recovery by water flooding. Basic knowledge of reservoir engineering concepts is recommended. Further, the course is recommended for all engineers and technical staff (superintendents, supervisors & foremen) whose responsibilities include the safe and cost-effective operation of water injection systems. Management will also benefit by increasing their awareness of the cost-effective use of treatment chemicals and by developing their skills in analysis of water quality data. Furthermore, this course is suitable for corrosion personnel, W.I. personnel, lab personnel, chemists and chemical engineers
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on waterflooding management Discuss water injection technology, waterflooding, waterflood configurations and field life cycle
      Carryout exploration, reservoir management approach, oil production processes, primary recovery, water injection system and thermal and non-EOR methods Identify the average recovery factors, types of data, factors common to all recovery methods and rock and fluid properties
      Explain porosity, permeability, flow equation (Darcy law), the effect of wettability, capillary pressure and reservoir fluid properties Apply reservoir hydrocarbon fluid classification, reserves estimation and classification and the method used for estimating dependent on data
      Illustrate recovery and efficiency calculations, analogy method, ultimate recovery, decline curve analysis and reservoir simulation Recognize reservoir drive mechanisms and producing characteristics as well as well & reservoir inflow performance, water drive expansion characteristics and gravity drainage in oil reservoirs
      Estimate oil recovery factors and identify the effects of gravity, attic gas injection, reservoir life cycle, infill drilling and main sources of injection water Discuss crude oil dehydration, produced water management, typical water quality criteria and treatment of water for waterflooding
      Apply pattern configurations and describe peripheral or repeating pattern flood, waterflood patterns, repeating pattern flood, basic flood pattern guidelines and optimum water flood pattern Employ waterflood design procedure, analyzing waterflood patterns, empirical and analytical techniques, simulation technique and waterflood monitoring and management
      Illustrate reservoir management process, waterflood monitoring and management, on-line monitoring, waterflood surveillance and pilot test design Perform injection and production profile modification, oil production processes, non-thermal methods and non-thermal oil recovery methods
      Discuss the importance of mobility control, polymer flooding, properties of polymer solutions, stability and the effect of polymer retention Review the guidelines for polymer application and describe fluid characteristic, surfactant flooding method and the behavior of the anionic surfactant in the aqueous phase
      Explain the different structures of the micelle inside the aqueous solution and variation of conductivity with surfactant concentration Review field development optimization of waterflooding, EOR and well placement focusing on history matching and optimization algorithms
      Apply production optimization for waterflood and enhanced oil recovery
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of waterflooding management. It covers the water injection technology, waterflooding, waterflood configurations and field life cycle; the exploration, reservoir management approach, oil production processes, primary recovery, water injection system and thermal and non-EOR methods; the average recovery factors, types of data, factors common to all recovery methods and rock and fluid properties; the porosity, permeability and flow equation (Darcy law); and the effect of wettability, capillary pressure and reservoir fluid properties

        Further, the course will also discuss the reservoir hydrocarbon fluid classification, reserves estimation and classification and the method used for estimating dependent on data; the recovery and efficiency calculations, analogy method, ultimate recovery, decline curve analysis and reservoir simulation; the reservoir drive mechanisms and producing characteristics; the well & reservoir inflow performance, water drive expansion characteristics and gravity drainage in oil reservoirs; the oil recovery factors; the effects of gravity, attic gas injection, reservoir life cycle, infill drilling and main sources of injection water; and the crude oil dehydration, produced water management, typical water quality criteria and treatment of water for waterflooding.

        Moreover, the course will also cover the pattern configurations, peripheral or repeating pattern flood, waterflood patterns, repeating pattern flood, basic flood pattern guidelines and optimum water flood pattern; the waterflood design procedure, waterflood patterns, empirical and analytical techniques, simulation technique and waterflood monitoring and management; the reservoir management process, waterflood monitoring and management, on-line monitoring, waterflood surveillance and pilot test design; and the injection and production profile modification, oil production processes, non-thermal methods and non-thermal oil recovery methods

        During this course, participants will learn the importance of mobility control, polymer flooding, properties of polymer solutions, stability and the effect of polymer retention; the guidelines for polymer application; the fluid characteristic, surfactant flooding method and the behavior of the anionic surfactant in the aqueous phase; the different structures of the micelle inside the aqueous solution and variation of conductivity with surfactant concentration; the field development optimization of waterflooding, EOR and well placement focusing on history matching and optimization algorithms; and the production optimization for waterflood and enhanced oil recovery
        • Module 1 - Introduction

          Contents:
            • Waterflooding - General Discussion Important Issues
            • A Typical Waterflood Project 
            • Management Team
            • Synergy
            • Video: Waterflooding
          • Module 2 - Field Life Cycle

            Contents:
              • General Definitions
              • Exploration
              • Introduction
              • Reservoir Management Approch  
              • Oil Production Processes
              • Primary Recovery
              • Water Injection System
              • Thermal EOR Methods
              • Non-Thermal EOR Methods
              • Average Recovery Factors 
              • Types of Data
              • Factors Common to all Recovery Methods
              • Rock and Fluid Properties 
              • Classification of Porosity
              • Porosity
              • How to Measure Porosity
              • Measurement of Porosity With Cores
              • Porosity Measurements
              • Effect of the Depth on Porosity
              • Permeability
              • Darcy Law
              • Porosity Permeability Cross Plot
              • Relative Permeability
              • Oil-Water Relative Permeability
              • Oil-Gas Relative Permeability
              • Laboratory Methods for Measuring Relative Permeability
              • Laboratory Procedure, Displacement (Unsteady-State) Method
              • Relative Permeability
              • Factors Affecting Effective and Relative Permeabilities
              • Effect of Saturation History
              • Choosing the Right Curve
              • Importance of Relative Permeability Data
              • Relative Permeability Curve @ Zero IFT
              • Capillary Pressure
              • Capillary Pressure Curve
              • Relation Between Capillary Pressure and Fluid Saturation
              • Using of RFT Data to Calculate FWL
              • Capillary Pressure Data Applications
              • Effect of Permeability on Capillary Curve
              • Effect of Contact Angle
              • Effect of Interfacial Tension
              • Effect of Density Difference
              • Effect of Saturation History
              • Typical Drainage and Imbibition Capillary Pressure Curves
              • Laboratory Methods for Measuring Capillary Pressure
              • Wettability
              • In Hydrocarbon Reservoirs
              • Video: Wettability
              • Contact Angle
              • Implications of Wettability
              • Laboratory Measurement Techniques
              • Nonwetting Phase Fluid 
              • Additives that can Alter Rock Wettability
              • Reservoir Fluid  Properties
              • Reservoir Hydrocarbon Fluid Classification
              • Black Oils
              • Phase Diagram For Black Oil
              • Volatile Oils 
              • Retrograde Condensate Gas
              • Phase Diagram for Retrograde Gas
              • Wet Gas
              • Dry Gas
              • Phase Diagram For Dry Gas
              • Oil Properties
              • Solution Gas/Oil Ratio
              • Oil Viscosity
              • Water Properties
              • Water Salinity
              • The Influence of the Reservoir Characteristics 
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Reserves Estimation and Classification

              Contents:
                • Why Reserve Estimates?
                • Oil Reserve Classification
                • Remaining Reserves
                • Definition
                • Proved Reserves
                • Reserve Status Categories
                • Proved Undeveloped Reserves
                • Video: How to Understand Oil and Gas Reserves and Resources
                • Unproved Reserves
                • Probable Reserves
                • Energy Source Criteria for Oil Reserve Classification
                • Reserves Changes
                • Placing Proved, Probable, and Possible on the Distribution
                • Reserves-to-Production Ratio
                • Role of Reserves
                • Reserves Estimates
                • Method Used for Estimating Dependent on Data
                • Original Oil and Gas in Place Calculation
                • Recovery and Efficiency Calculations
                • Analogy Method
                • Correlations
                • Waterfloods
                • Ultimate Recovery
                • Decline Curve Analysis
                • Reservoir Simulation
                • Example Applications of Reservoir Simulation
                • Steps in a Reservoir Simulation Study
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Reservoir Drive Mechanisms and Producing Characteristics

                Contents:
                  • Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
                  • Gas Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
                  • Reservoir Energy Sources
                  • Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
                  • Well & Reservoir Inflow Performance
                  • Solution Gas Expansion Characteristics
                  • Solution Gas Drive
                  • Gas-Cap Drive in Oil Reservoirs
                  • Gas Cap Expansion Characteristics
                  • Gas Cap Drive
                  • Well & Reservoir Inflow Performance
                  • Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs
                  • Strong Water Drive
                  • Water Drive Expansion Characteristics
                  • Well & Reservoir Inflow Performance
                  • Combination Drive in Oil Reservoirs 
                  • Gravity Drainage in Oil Reservoirs
                  • Gas Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
                  • Volumetric Gas Reservoirs
                  • Water Drive in Gas Reservoirs
                  • Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
                  • Average Recovery Factors
                  • Properties Favorable for Oil Recovery
                  • Characteristics of Various Driving Mechanisms
                  • Estimating Oil Recovery Factors
                  • Applications of Waterflooding
                  • Effects of Gravity
                  • Lateral Pay Discontinuities
                  • Attic Gas Injection
                  • Exercises Recovery Methods
                  • Video: Reservoir drive mechanisms of MBE_ MBAL software
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Describing Water Flooding

                  Contents:
                    • Reservoir Life Cycle
                    • Infill Drilling
                    • Waterflooding
                    • History of Waterflooding
                    • Reasons for Water Injection
                    • Pressure Maintenance
                    • Displace Oil With Water
                    • Primary Drive Mechanisms
                    • "Proposed and Conditions of 
                    • Gas and Water Injection"
                    • A Typical Water Flood Project
                    • Source Waters
                    • Main Sources of Injection Water
                    • Injection Water
                    • Crude Oil Dehydration
                    • Difficult Emulsions
                    • Produced Water Management Disposal Options
                    • Typical Water Quality Criteria
                    • Treatment of Water for Waterflooding
                    • pH of Natural Waters
                    • Waterflood Performance Measurements
                    • Water Flood Planning in an Economic Perspective
                    • Optimum Timing for a Water Flood
                    • Key Questions in Designing a Water Flood
                    • Water Injection to Sweep Oil
                    • Pattern Configurations
                    • Peripheral or Repeating Pattern Flood
                    • Peripheral Flood
                    • Waterflood Patterns
                    • Repeating Pattern Flood
                    • Basic Flood Patterns
                    • Peripheral Flooding
                    • Optimum Water Flood Pattern
                    • Line Drive Patterns
                    • 5-Spot Pattern
                    • 7-Spot Pattern
                    • 9-Spot Pattern
                    • Factors in Pattern Selection
                    • Design Aspects
                    • Conceptual Planning
                    • 2- Preliminary Designs
                    • Waterflood Design Procedure
                    • Screen Reservoir for Suitability
                    • Estimate Injection Requirement to Support the Desired Production Rate
                    • Select Possible Scenarios 
                    • Why do Waterfloods Fall Below Expectations
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Frontal Advance Theory

                    Contents:
                      • Fractional Flow Equation
                      • Video: Fractional flow and Buckley Leverett solutions
                      • Oil-Water Relative Permeability
                      • Fractional Flow Curves
                      • Information From the Fractional Flow Curve
                      • Analyzing Waterflood Patterns
                      • Mobility
                      • Significance of Mobility Ratio
                      • Fluid Displacement in Piston-Like Manner
                      • Fluid Displacement in Piston-Like
                      • Buckley-Leverett
                      • Waterflood Performance Efficiencies
                      • Displacement Efficiency
                      • Laboratory Work
                      • Performance Efficiencies
                      • Linear Flow Models
                      • Example  Displacement Efficiency Calculation
                      • Areal Sweep Efficiency (EA)
                      • Areal Sweep Efficiency After Breakthrough
                      • Vertical Sweep Efficiency
                      • Mathematical Models of Vertical Sweep Efficiency
                      • Volumetric Sweep Efficiency
                      • Performance Predictions Methods
                      • Analogy
                      • Empirical Techniques 
                      • Analytical Techniques
                      • Simulation Technique
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Waterflood Monitoring and Management

                      Contents:
                        • On-Line Monitoring
                        • Waterflood Surveillance
                        • Waterflood Performance Problems
                        • Improved Waterflood Strategies
                        • Monitoring Water Supply
                        • Factors Affecting Water Quality
                        • Objective of Pilot Tests
                        • Pilot Test Design
                        • Injection & Production Profile Modification
                        • Problem Solving
                        • Infill Drilling
                        • Waterflood Challenges
                        • Video: Waterflood System Animation
                      • Module 8 - Polymer Flooding

                        Contents:
                          • Oil Production Processes
                          • Polymer flood
                          • Caustic flood
                          • Microbiological inoculation
                          • Miscible hydrocarbon displacement
                          • Non Thermal Methods
                          • Polymer Flooding
                          • Functions
                          • Principle and Method Description
                          • Importance of Mobility Control
                          • The Advantages of Polymer Flooding Are Two-fold:
                          • What is a Polymer?
                          • Example:  Polyacrylamide (PAM)
                          • Types of Polymers
                          • "Polyacrylamides (HPAM)."
                          • Polysaccharides Biopolymers.
                          • Properties of Polymer Solutions
                          • Stability
                          • Method Description 
                          • Field Projects
                          • Polymer Retention
                          • Salinity
                          • Guidelines for Polymer Application 
                          • Fluid Characteristic 
                          • Screen Criteria of Polymer
                          • Process of Flooding
                          • Video: Visual Reservoir Polymer Flooding
                          • Module Quiz
                        • Module 9 - Surfactant Flooding Method

                          Contents:
                            • Introduction
                            • Statement of the Problem
                            • Objective of the Study
                            • What is Surfactant 
                            • Principle and Characteristics 
                            • Examples of Common Surfactants
                            • Behavior of the Anionic Surfactant in the Aqueous Phase:
                            • Different Structures of  the Micelle Inside the Aqueous Solution
                            • Description of Process 
                            • Used Martials
                            • Characterization of Surfactant:
                            • Chromatographic Interpretation Determination of Molecular Weight
                            • Determination of Chemical Properties:
                            • Variation of Conductivity with Surfactant Concentration
                            • Product of Solubility (Ps)
                            • Typical Precipitation Curve (Pure Surfactant)
                            • Screening Criteria 
                            • Economics of Process 
                            • Case Study: Water Flooding Optimization Case Studies
                            • Module Quiz
                          • Post-Test

                            Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.