## Topic outline

### Training Methodology & Objectives

**Training Methodology**__This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-__- Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
- Simulation & Animation
- Exercises
- Videos
- Case Studies
- Gamification (learning through games)
- Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

**Course Objectives****After completing the course, the employee will:-**Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on well testing and analysis Drill a well cost effectively and maximize penetration rate Evaluate stuck pipe problems and avoid potential problems by optimizing hole cleaning and ROP Design, drill string and BOP/wellheads Design and implement bit and hydraulics programs Recognize and evaluate well control problems by effectively using Mud Logging principles and techniques Identify several mathematical basis for pressure test analysis and be able to know the analytical solutions of the diffusivity equation for radial flow, constant production rate, closed cylindrical reservoir Employ the methods of pressure down testing according to pressure drawdown analysis and transient conditions Explain the process of pressure build-up testing by recognizing the various factors affecting pressure build up testing Determine the procedure of detection of linear discontinuities of faults and barriers associated with drawdown testing and build up testing Recognize the aspects of test analysis by type-curve matching such as Ramey’s type curves, Earlougher-Kersh type curves, and McKinley type curves Identify the process of diagnosing the reservoir model through analysis of pressure derivation type curves Discuss the elements of convolution and deconvolution interpretation methods such as convolution type curve and wellbore storage deconvolution Identify the scope of detection of formation damage in line with well testing factor, slanted wellbore, partial penetration and partial completion Apply the process of gas well testing through conventional and isochronal test Characterize the different wireline formation testers in accordance to the RFT tools and analysis of pressure profiles Apply the various methods of drillstem testing using typical DST assembly, typical DST sequence, and DST interpretation Recognize other well tests and reservoir conditions according to layered reservoir, injection well testing and artificially fractured wells ### Course Description

##### This E-Learning course provides the comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals and applications of well pressure and flow tests. Emphasis is placed not only on understanding and optimizing well performance, but also on the reservoir performance as a whole. The role of well testing in diagnosing well problems and in reservoir characterization is covered

##### This course will discuss the several mathematical basis for pressure test analysis; the analytical solutions of the diffusivity equation for radial flow, constant production rate, closed cylindrical reservoir; the methods of pressure down testing according to pressure drawdown analysis and transient conditions.

##### Further, the course will also discuss the process of pressure build-up testing; the procedure of detection of linear discontinuities of faults and barriers associated with drawdown testing and build up testing; the aspects of test analysis by type-curve matching such as Ramey’s type curves, Earlougher-Kersh type curves, and McKinley type curves; the process of diagnosing the reservoir model through analysis of pressure derivation type curves; and the elements of convolution and deconvolution interpretation methods such as convolution type curve and wellbore storage deconvolution

##### During this interactive course, participants will learn the scope of detection of formation damage in line with well testing factor, slanted wellbore, partial penetration and partial completion; the process of gas well testing through conventional and isochronal test; the different wireline formation testers in accordance to the RFT tools and analysis of pressure profiles; the various methods of drillstem testing using typical DST assembly, typical DST sequence, and DST interpretation; and the other well tests and reservoir conditions according to layered reservoir, injection well testing and artificially fractured wells

### Module 1 - Well Test Design Part 1: General Information and Basic Assumptions

__Contents:__- Well Test
- Nomenclature and Oilfield Units
- Other Data
- Interrelated Geologic and Engineering Activities
- Significance of Sandstone and Carbonates
- Structural Map Due to Faulting
- Oil Accumulation in Anticline Zone
- Oil in Non-Conformity Structure
- Oil in Vicinity to Salt Dome
- Reef Oil Accumulation
- Ideal Permeability Profiles
- Video: The Petroleum Industry: Reservoir Structure
- Module Quiz

### Module 2 - Reservoir Considerations in Well Completions

__Contents:__- Forces in Hydrocarbon Behavior
- Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature
- Vapor Pressure Curves for Two Components
- Phase Diagram Low Shrinkage Oil
- Relative Permeability (Water-Wet Core)
- Wettability
- Fluid Distribution
- Effects of Height Above Free Water Level on Connate-Water
- Effect of Pore Size and Shape on Connate Water Content
- Fluid Distribution in a Uniform-Sand Reservoir Containing Connate Water
- Fluid Flow in the Reservoir
- Pressure Conditions Around a Flowing Well
- Radial Flow Around Wellbore
- Pressure Distribution Near the Well in Radial Flow
- Varying Permeabilities
- Linear Flow via Perforations
- Radial Flow Series Combination of Beds
- Pressure Drop vs Flow Rate via Perforations
- Causes of Low Flowing BHP
- Influence of Skin Effect on Pressure Around Wellbore
- Damage Ratio
- Effect of Reservoir Drive Mechanism
- Dissolved Gas Drive Mechanism
- Gas Cap Drive Reservoirs
- Water Drive Reservoirs
- Video: Reservoir - Gas Cap
- Module Quiz

### Module 3 - Well Testing

__Contents:__- Periodic Production Tests
- Video: Well Testing Procedure
- For Oil Wells
- For Gas Wells
- Productivity or Deliverability Tests
- Deliverability Tests
- Module Quiz

### Module 4 - Oil Wells

__Contents:__- Video: Oil and Gas Wells - Start to Finish
- Inflow Performance Test
- Typical Inflow Performance Curves
- Inflow Performance Relationship
- Flow After Flow
- Pressure Rate History for Modified - Isochronal Flow Test
- Modified Isochronal Test Data Plot
- Modified Isochronal
- Gas Wells
- Transient Pressure Test
- Pressure Distribution Around a Well with Positive Skin Factor
- After Flow Deliverability Curve
- Pressure Build Up Test Ideal
- Drill Stem Testing
- Fluid Diagram, Open Hole DST
- DST
- Ideal Horner Build Up Plot
- Surface R/Up Closed Chamber Test
- Buildup Pressure
- RFT Tool (Repeated Formation Tester)
- RFT
- Conclusions
- Module Quiz

### Module 5 - Well Testing, Transient Test Analysis, Equations, Curves

__Contents:__- Principles of Transient Test Analysis
- Diffusivity Equation
- Video: Diffusivity Equation Derivation
- Solutions to the Flow Equation Dimensionless Quantities
- Module Quiz

### Module 6 - Wellbore Damage and Improvement Effects

__Contents:__- Video: Permeability, Wellbore Damage & Barrier Effects Evaluation Using DST
- Pressure Distribution Around Well with a Positive Skin Factor
- Pressure Distribution Around Well with Negative Skin Factor
- Skin Zone of Finite Thickness
- Pressure Drop in Damaged or Improved Well
- Skin Finite Thickness W Permeability ks
- Apparent Wellbore Radius
- Wellbore Storage
- Pseudoskin Factor for Partially Penetrated Wells
- Wellbore Storage
- Ratio of Sand-Face to Surface Rate
- Dimensionless Pressure Including Wellbore Storage
- Module Quiz

### Module 7 - Steady-State Flow

__Contents:__- Linear and Radial Pressure Distribution Steady State Flow
- Many Irregular Steady-State Systems
- Video: Steady vs Unsteady Flow
- The Principle of Superposition
- Multiple Well, Infinite System
- Superposition
- Rate History of Well
- Pressure Calculation
- Example Superposition Calculation
- N Rates for the Equation
- Superposition - Example
- Example for Superposition
- Well 2 for 11 Hours pw
- Pressure Drawdown Testing
- Beginning Time of Semilog Straight Line
- Skin Factor Rearranged Form
- Module Quiz

### Module 8 - Multiple Rate Testing

__Contents:__- Slope of the Data Plot for the Multiple-Rate Test psi/cycle (STB/D)
- Mathematical Basis for Pressure Analysis Methods
- Mathematical Basis for Pr Analysis
- Laminar Flow, Low Reynolds Numbers
- Video: Reynolds Number - Laminar and Turbulent Flow
- Hubbert’s Formula
- Radial Flow No Gravity
- Velocity Correction to Modify Law
- Derivation of Continuity Equation for Radial and 3D
- Continuity Equation / Principle
- Three Dimensional Case - General Form - Combines Darcy’s Law and Continuity
- Radial Flow
- Single Phase Liquid Flow
- For Constant Permeability Porosity and Small Compressibility
- Final Formula for Radial Flow
- Module Quiz

### Module 9 - Pressure Buildup Analysis

__Contents:__- Pressure Build Up Equations
- Coeficient Same as Absolute Value of Slope
- Pressure Build Up in Nearly Ideal Reservoir
- PR. B. Up Showing Effect Wellbore Damage and After Production
- Example Calculation
- Nomenclature
- Dimensionless Pressure Single Well
- Single Well Infinite System
- Single Vertically Fractured Well
- Semilog Plot for Fractured Single
- Horizontally Fractured Well
- Wellbore Storage and Skin Included
- Infinite Reservoir Skin and Storage Included
- Type Curve for a Single Well
- Type Curve Single Well
- Well in Center, Circular Reservoir
- Well in Center, Closed Circular Reservoir
- Closed Circular Reservoir No Skin
- Closed Square System, Well in Center
- No Storage No Skin, Well in Center
- Various Closed Rectangular System
- Fractured Well No Skin No Storage
- Constant External Pressure
- One or More Constant Pressures Boundaries
- RFT