Topic outline

  • Special Calculations in Pipes

    This course covers systematic techniques on special calculations in pipes for project engineers, process engineers and plant engineers in the oil, chemical and other process industries who require the necessary skills to be able to analyze the flow of oil and gas through pipes. No prior knowledge of the topic is required and participants will be taken through all the fundamental principles of the subject of fluid mechanics using a level of mathematics which at all times is purposely kept to a minimum level. The course makes use of a very substantial number of worked examples giving the participants the necessary time and opportunity to learn from practical problem-solving
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on special calculations in pipes Discuss the fundamentals of hydro-dynamics including steady state flow, the continuity equation (conservation of mass), fluid flow and pressure energy
      Explain Bernoulli’s principle, pump engineering, centrifugal pumps/fluid density, system performance curves and ASME code standard & specification Differentiate pipe and tube, classify pipes, identify the different types of gaskets and apply centrifugal pumps/calculation
      Illustrate Moody diagram and recognize Darcy friction factor, pipe fitting head loss, recommended velocities and piping sizing guidelines Apply NPSH calculations, pumping methods, pump selection and centrifugal pumps classification
      Describe the centrifugal pump spectrum and construction including impeller, shaft, casing, diffuser, seals and wear rings Illustrate surge protection, pipeline design, pipeline construction and transportation and distribution of pipelines
      Apply fabrication and construction, operations, integrity assessment and repairs Carryout internal pressure calculations and design of pressure components wall thickness calculation
      Identify the weld joint strength factor and perform wall thickness calculation, bend calculations and design considerations Recognize dynamic effects, branch connections, brittle fracture control, mechanical crack arrestors, flanges and blanks
      Discuss special fittings, clamp connectors, compact flanges, over-pressure protection and pipeline layout and supports Explain pipe supports design standards, pipeline flexibility, flexibility requirements and design for longitudinal stress
      Apply required leak test methods as well as pressure tests hydrostatic, pneumatic, and combination tests Employ pigging and cleaning of pipelines, pigging for pipeline efficiency and pre-inspection preparation
      Review welder qualification, performance qualification by others and welding procedure specification (WPS) Describe shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding
      Illustrate welding processes, weld preparation, preheating, heat treatment, bending, forming, assembly, erection and alignment
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of special calculations in pipes. It covers the fundamentals of hydro-dynamics including steady state flow, the continuity equation (conservation of mass), fluid flow and pressure energy; the Bernoulli’s principle, pump engineering, centrifugal pumps/fluid density, system performance curves and ASME code standard & specification; and the pipe and tube, pipes classification, the different types of gaskets and centrifugal pumps/calculation
        Further, the course will also discuss the Moody diagram, Darcy friction factor, pipe fitting head loss, recommended velocities and piping sizing guidelines; the NPSH calculations, pumping methods, pump  selection and centrifugal pumps classification; the centrifugal pump spectrum and construction including impeller, shaft, casing, diffuser, seals and wear rings; the surge protection, pipeline design, pipeline construction and transportation and distribution of pipelines; the fabrication and construction, operations, integrity assessment and repairs; the internal pressure calculations; and the design of pressure components wall thickness calculation
        Moreover, the course will also cover the weld joint strength factor, wall thickness calculation, bend calculations and design considerations; the dynamic effects, branch connections, brittle fracture control, mechanical crack arrestors, flanges and blanks; the special fittings, clamp connectors, compact flanges, over-pressure protection and pipeline layout and supports; and the pipe supports design standards, pipeline flexibility, flexibility requirements and design for longitudinal stress .
        During this course, participants will learn the required leak test methods, pressure tests hydrostatic, pneumatic, and combination tests; the pigging and cleaning of pipelines, pigging for pipeline efficiency and pre-inspection preparation; the welder qualification, performance qualification by others and welding procedure specification (WPS); the shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding; and the welding processes, weld preparation, preheating, heat treatment, bending, forming, assembly, erection and alignment


        • Module 1 - Fluid Flow, ΔP & NPSH Calculations

          Contents:
            • Fundamentals of Hydro-Dynamics
            • Example: Pressure Drop
            • The Continuity Equation (Conservation of Mass)
            • Fluid Flow
            • Flow Trough Pipes
            • Energy of A Fluid In Motion
            • Example: Pressure Drop
            • Pressure Energy
            • Pressure, Gage & Absolute
            • Gauge and Absolute Pressure
            • Specific Gravity
            • Head
            • Pumps Terms
            • Vapor Pressure
            • Bernoulli’s Principle
            • Pump Engineering
            • Pumps Terms
            • Definition of Pump Head
            • Head
            • Centrifugal Pumps/Fluid Density
            • Static Head
            • System Performance Curves
            • Total Head Problem Calculation
            • Total Head Problem
            • Standard
            • Various Standards
            • Standard Use for Designers & Fabricators
            • Why Standard Require?
            • Code
            • Why did Code Require?
            • Specification
            • Why Specification Require?
            • Which Code is Used for Process Piping and Power Piping?
            • What are the Most Commonly Used ASME Sections?
            • NACE Means National Association of Corrosion Engineers
            • Difference Between Tube & Pipe
            • Pipe Size
            • What is Nominal Pipe Size?
            • What is DN Pipe Size?
            • Classification of Pipes
            • Spades and Spectacle Plates
            • What are the Different Types of Gaskets
            • ΔP Calculations
            • General
            • Valves & Fittings P
            • ΔP of Valves & Fittings
            • Centrifugal Pumps/Calculation
            • Centrifugal Pump Head Calculation
            • Pump Head Calculation
            • Valves and Fittings Friction Loss
            • Valves and Fittings Friction Loss, Alternate Calculation
            • Total head Calculation
            • Various Tables
            • Darcy Friction Factor
            • Pipe Fitting Head Loss
            • Recommended Velocities
            • Economic Pipe Diameter
            • Equivalent Lengths of Fittings
            • Recommended Velocity
            • Piping Sizing Guidelines
            • Maximum Continues Liquid Velocity
            • System Curve
            • Pipe Fitting Head Loss
            • NPSH Calculations
            • Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
            • Methods of Pumping
            • Pump Selection
            • How Do Centrifugal Pumps Work?
            • Calculating the NPSHa
            • What is Velocity Head?
            • What is Velocity Head?
            • Pipe Fitting Head Loss
            • Video: Fundamental of Pipe (Pipeline) for Oil & Gas Engineer
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Centrifugal Pumps

            Contents:
              • Introduction
              • How Do Centrifugal Pumps Work?
              • Classification of Centrifugal Pumps
              • Classification With Respect To The Liquid Flow
              • The Centrifugal Pump Spectrum
              • Centrifugal Pumps Construction
              • Centrifugal Pump
              • Impeller – Open Type
              • Impeller – Closed Type
              • Impeller Vanes
              • Impeller Suction
              • Impeller Positioning
              • Impeller Number
              • Opposite Impellers Multi-Stage
              • Impellers in Row Multi-Stage
              • Pump Rotor Axial Thrust
              • Impeller Number
              • Unbalance on Each Impeller = Pd - Ps
              • Balancing Drum
              • Centrifugal Pumps Construction
              • Other Centrifugal Pumps
              • Centrifugal Pumps Arrangement
              • ANSI Pump Unit
              • Premium Fabricated Steel
              • Shaft
              • Casing
              • Diffuser
              • Seals
              • Wear Rings
              • Wear Ring Clearance
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Centrifugal Compressors

              Contents:
                • How Centrifugal Compressor Works?
                • Centrifugal Compressor Components
                • Centrifugal Compressors
                • Compressor Casing
                • Guide Vanes
                • The Function of the Guide Vanes
                • The Compressor Rotor
                • Diaphragms
                • Centrifugal Compressors - Arrangement
                • Video: How Centrifugal Compressor Works
                • Surge Point
                • Dynamic Compressors - Centrifugal
                • Surge - Definition
                • Surge Protection
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Pipeline Design

                Contents:
                  • History of Pipelines 1820 - 1880's
                  • History of Pipelines 1880’s Oil Tanks
                  • History of Pipelines 1880's - 1900
                  • A string team of a dozen or more animals hauls crude in tank wagons to Casper's first refinery, ca. 1900. Transport like this was expensive; pipelines, once built, cut costs dramatically.
                  • History of Pipelines 1900 - 1920
                  • In Jan 1903, a pipeline bringing water from Perth to Western Australia’s parched goldfields began to flow.
                  • History of Pipelines 1920 - 1940
                  • Transportation Cost Comparison
                  • Transportation Fatalities
                  • Introduction
                  • Products Transported by Pipelines
                  • History of Pipeline Construction Industry
                  • Technological a Historical Over View
                  • Historical Perspective 1890’s
                  • Historical Perspective 1916
                  • Historical Perspective 1926 Welding
                  • History of Pipelines 1920 - 1940
                  • History of Pipelines 1960 - 1990
                  • History of Pipelines 1990-2010
                  • Purpose of Pipelines
                  • Types of Pipelines
                  • ASME B31 Pressure Piping Code
                  • B31.3 Tank and Process Facilities
                  • ASME B31.3
                  • ASME B31.3 Process
                  • ASME B31.3 Appendices
                  • B31.4-B31.8 Transmission Pipeline
                  • B31.3-B31.4-B31.8 Station Piping
                  • B31.3-B31.4-B31.8 Mainline Valves
                  • ASME B31.4 Liquids
                  • ASME B31.8 Gas
                  • B31.8 Appendices
                  • B31.4 and B31.8 Introduction
                  • Six Fundamental Areas
                  • System Design (Process Design, P&ID)
                  • System Design
                  • Materials
                  • Detailed Design
                  • Fabrication and Construction
                  • Operations
                  • Integrity Assessment and Repairs
                  • ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Codes
                  • API Codes and Standards: 500
                  • API Codes and Standards: 600
                  • API Codes and Standards: 5
                  • API Codes and Standards: 1100
                  • API Codes and Standards: 2200
                  • ASME B16 Dimensional and Pressure Rating Standards
                  • NACE Means National Association of Corrosion Engineers
                  • NACE Recommended Practice
                  • Video: Pipeline Design
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Fabrication and Installation

                  Contents:
                    • ASME B31.1 Chapter V Fabrication, Assembly and Erection
                    • Welder Qualification
                    • Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)
                    • Welding Processes — Fusion Weld
                    • Welding Processes — Arc Welding
                    • Shielded Metal Arc Welding
                    • Gas Metal Arc Welding
                    • Flux Cored Arc Welding
                    • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
                    • Welding Processes
                    • Welding Processes Accepted
                    • Weld Preparation
                    • Typical Welds
                    • Typical Welds- Branch Connection
                    • Preheating
                    • Heat Treatment
                    • Bending and Forming
                    • Video: Bending
                    • Installation 335 Assembly and Erection
                    • Flanged Joints Alignment
                    • 335.2 Flanged Joints
                    • Flange Joint
                    • Tighten Procedure for Flange Joints
                    • 335.3 Threaded Joints
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Operating & Design Pressure Layout & Support

                    Contents:
                      • Internal & External Pressure
                      • ASME B31.3 - Process Piping
                      • Straight Pipe
                      • Design of Pressure Components Wall Thickness Calculation
                      • Straight Pipe
                      • Weld Joint Quality Factor E
                      • Weld Joint Strength Factor
                      • Coefficient Y
                      • Design of Pressure Components
                      • Wall Thickness Calculation
                      • Elbows & Bends
                      • Bend Calculations
                      • Pipe Bends
                      • Straight Pipe - External Pressure
                      • Pipeline Thickness under External Load
                      • UG – 28
                      • ASME B31.4 – Liquid Hydrocarbons
                      • ASME B31.8 – Gas Pipelines
                      • Flanges and Blanks
                      • Bolt Loads - Section VIII, Div. 1
                      • Gasket Factors
                      • Gasket Factors "M" And "Y"
                      • Other Components [304.7.2]
                      • Pressure Design of Fittings
                      • Pipeline Layout and Supports
                      • Spacing Guide [ASME B31.1 – Power]
                      • Pipeline Standard Supports
                      • Pipeline Flexibility
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - ASME B31.3 Chapter VI Inspection, Examination

                      Contents:
                        • Inspection, Examination & Testing
                        • Inspection
                        • Examination
                        • 341.3 Examination Requirements
                        • 341.3.2 Acceptance Criteria
                        • 344.6 Ultrasonic Examination
                        • Examination Methods
                        • Visual Inspection Tools
                        • Examination Requirements
                        • 341.4.1 Examination — Normal Fluid Service.
                        • 341.4.3 Examination — Severe Cyclic Conditions.
                        • Examination Requirements - VT
                        • Examination Requirements - Other
                        • 345 Testing 345.1 Required Leak Test
                        • Leak Test Methods
                        • 345.4.3 Hydrostatic Test of Piping With Vessels
                        • 345.5 Pneumatic Leak Test
                        • Other Leak Test Provisions
                        • Exam & Test Workshop
                        • Module Quiz
                      • Module 8 - Pressure Tests Hydrostatic, Pneumatic, and Combination Tests

                        Contents:
                          • API 570 Pressure Testing Requirements 5.8
                          • ASME B31.3 Calculation of Test Pressures 345.4
                          • Pressure Tests
                        • Module 9 - Pigging and Cleaning of Pipelines

                          Contents:
                            • What is a Pig?
                            • Pigging for Pipeline Efficiency
                            • Conventional Pigs
                            • Pigging
                            • Special Pigs
                            • Specialist Pigs
                            • Pigging During Pipeline Construction
                            • Pigging During Construction
                            • Why Clean? (Operator Said it Was Clean)
                            • Pig Launching & Receiving
                            • Pig Launcher
                            • Pig Launcher Operational Sequence
                            • Pig Receiver
                            • Conventional
                            • Cleaning Pigs
                            • Cleaning of Pipeline
                            • First Pig
                            • 2nd Pig
                            • 3rd Pig
                            • Bi-Di Pig
                            • Change Pig Type – Bi-Di
                            • 2nd Bi-Di
                            • 3rd Bi-Di
                            • D-scaling Pig
                            • Cleaning
                            • Smart Pig
                            • Video: Pigging
                            • Module Quiz
                          • Module 10 - Case Studies

                            Contents:
                              • 1.0 Case Study: Piper Alpha
                              • 2.0 Case Study –Yangshan LNG Terminal
                              • 3.0 Case Study: Trans-Alaska Pipeline
                              • 4.0 Case Study Oil Pipeline Failure – Over-Pressure
                              • 5.0 Case Study - Failure of Pipeline Pump
                              • 6.0 Case Study – BP Amoco Polymers
                              • 7.0 Case Study – Pneumatic Testing, Brazil
                              • Case Study Erosion Corrosion Failure in Pipe Elbow Fire and Explosion at ConocoPhillips Humber Refinery April 2001
                              • Case Study: ConocoPhillips Humber
                              • 09. Case Study: Carslbad, New Mexico
                              • 10. Case Study: Flixborough
                            • Post-Test

                              Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.