Topic outline

  • Formation Evaluation

    This course provides an overview of all significant aspects and considerations of formation evaluation for geologists, reservoir engineers, geophysicists, technical assistants, and support staff requiring an introduction to, or a refresher course on, formation evaluation
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on formation evaluation Employ reservoir modelling, gathering data, subsurface geological procedures, mudlogging and coring assembly and core bit
      Carryout well log analysis, logging while drilling and well log interpretation Recognize the common types of logs including gamma ray log, spontaneous potential (SP) log, SP log, sonic log and etc.
      Describe Archie’s equation, formation properties from cased-hole logs Perform cased hole logging measurements, drill stem testing, subsurface mapping and reading assignment formation evaluation
      Illustrate isometric view of dipping plane and curved surface Employ coring, core preservation, core analysis, open hole logging, formation testing, well test analysis and well logging
      Apply the principle of well logging and review electrical logs, resistivity logs, induction logs, dielectric logs and etc. Recognize GR and neutron tools and early porosity as well as employ recovery of physical rock samples and formation fluid samples with wireline tools
      Determine open hole logging measurements as well as value and limitations of well log data Discuss the nomenclature for zones in and around the borehole, sources of subsurface data and well logging history
      Explain the advantages and limitations of well logging, the basic theory of measurements and basic theory on resistivity Illustrate resistivity and measurement concept and the schematic diagram of how an induction tool works
      Recognize the common tools in the logging industry and the typical properties implied or estimated from the log measurements Describe the modern formation for fluid identification and identify other logs applications
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of formation evaluation. It covers the reservoir modelling, gathering data, subsurface geological procedures, mudlogging and coring assembly and core bit; the well log analysis, logging while drilling and well log interpretation; the common types of logs including gamma ray log, spontaneous potential (SP) log, SP log, sonic log and etc.; the Archie’s equation, formation properties from cased-hole logs; the cased hole logging measurements, drill stem testing, subsurface mapping and reading assignment formation evaluation; the isometric view of dipping plane and curved surface; the coring, core preservation, core analysis, open hole logging, formation testing, well test analysis and well logging; and the principle of well logging, electrical logs, resistivity logs, induction logs, dielectric logs and etc.
        During this course, participants will learn the GR and neutron tools and early porosity; the recovery of physical rock samples and formation fluid samples with wireline tools; the open hole logging measurements, value and limitations of well log data; the nomenclature for zones in and around the borehole, sources of subsurface data and well logging history; the advantages and limitations of well logging, the basic theory of measurements and resistivity; the resistivity and measurement concept and the schematic diagram of how an induction tool works; the common tools in the logging industry and the typical properties implied or estimated from the log measurements; and the modern formation for fluid identification and other logs applications.
        • Module 1 - Reservoir Modeling

          Contents:
            • Gathering Data
            • Subsurface Geological Procedures
            • Mudlog Example
            • Mud Logging
            • Cores
            • Information from Cores
            • Coring Assembly and Core Bit
            • Whole Core
            • Sidewall Sampling Gun
            • Sidewall Coring Tool
            • Wireline Logging
            • Video: Wireline Logging
            • Well Log Analysis
            • Well Log
            • Logging While Drilling
            • Openhole Well Logs
            • Borehole Conditions
            • Well Log Interpretation
            • Common Types of Logs
            • Gamma Ray Log
            • Spontaneous Potential (SP) Log
            • SP Log
            • Sonic Log
            • Density Log
            • Neutron Log
            • Resistivity Log
            • Example Log Suite
            • Logging While Drilling (LWD)
            • Cased-Hole Logs
            • Formation Properties From Cased-Hole Logs
            • Why Log Cased Wells?
            • Cased Hole Logging Measurements
            • Common Cased-Hole Logs
            • Reading Assignment Well Logging
            • Drill Stem Testing
            • Drill Stem Test Pressure History
            • Modular Dynamic Tester
            • Subsurface Mapping
            • Contour Maps
            • Isometric View of Dipping Plane
            • Reading Assignment Formation Evaluation
            • Summary Formation Evaluation
            • Exercises Formation Evaluation
            • Exercise 1
            • Exercise 1 Solution
            • Exercise 2
            • Exercise 2 Solution
            • Exercise 3
            • Exercise 3 Solution
            • Exercise 4
            • Exercise 4 Solution
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Formation Evaluation (Part 1)

            Contents:
              • Coring
              • Core Preservation
              • Core Analysis
              • Open-Hole Logging
              • Video: Open Hole Formation Logging Explainer Animation
              • Principal of Well Logging
              • Electrical Logs
              • Spontaneous Potential (SP) Log
              • Resistivity Logs
              • Induction Logs
              • Dielectric Logs
              • Nuclear Logs
              • Gamma Ray Log
              • Formation Density Log
              • Sonic or Acoustic Logs
              • Logging While Drilling
              • Formation Testing
              • Wireline Testing
              • Drillstem Test (DST)
              • Well Test Analysis
              • Cased-hole Logging
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Formation Evaluation (Part 2)

              Contents:
                • What Subsurface Information is Important?
                • Formation Evaluation is Critical to Understanding the Reservoir
                • Logging History
                • Types of Well Logging
                • Open Hole Logging
                • Electrical Logs
                • Sonic/ Acoustic Logs
                • Caliper Logs
                • Dipmeter Logs
                • SP Logs
                • Radioactive Logs
                • Open Hole Logging Measurements
                • Production Logging
                • Video: Production Logging Overview
                • Value and Limitations of Well Log Data
                • Petrophysical Logging Tools - Primary
                • Some Questions Addressed by Log Interpretation
                • Wireline Logging Equipment
                • Computerized Logging Units
                • Details of Wireline Logging Rigup
                • Logging Cable
                • Log Presentation
                • Log Presentation - The Heading
                • Log Presentation - Linear Grid
                • Log Presentation - Common Depth Scales
                • Types of Logs to be Run
                • Mud Filtrate Invasion
                • Common Terminology
                • Radial Fluid and Resistivity Distribution
                • Nomenclature for Zones in and Around the Borehole
                • Sources of Subsurface Data
                • Mud Log
                • Coring - Conventional
                • Sources of Data – Core
                • Coring - Sidewall
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Basic Well Logging Design

                Contents:
                  • Definition
                  • Well Logging History
                  • Log Measurements
                  • Advantages and Limitations of Well Logging
                  • Basic Theory of Measurements
                  • Logs are Implied Measurements
                  • Basic Theory on Resistivity
                  • Typical Formation
                  • Resistivity and Measurement Concept
                  • Resistivity Application
                  • Spontaneous Potential Log (SP)
                  • Gamma Ray Log (GR)
                  • Gamma Ray Logging
                  • Natural Gamma Ray Log (NGT)
                  • Video: Well Logging : Gamma Ray Log
                  • Density Log
                  • Effect of Barite Mud on the Spectrum
                  • Neutron Log
                  • Neutron Logging
                  • Acoustic Log
                  • Special Tools
                  • Wellbore Seismic
                  • Log and Seismic Tie Effort
                  • Synthetic Seismograms
                  • VSP & Seismic Section
                  • Velocity Survey
                  • Vertical Seismic Profile
                  • Basic Concept of VSP
                  • Offset VSP
                  • Basic Log Interpretation
                  • Petrophysical Properties
                  • Fluid Types and Lithology of Major Reservoirs, and Practical Applications of Log Data
                  • Fluid and Lithology Identification From the Logs
                  • How Can We Remember These Easily?
                  • Are There Any Anomalies?
                  • How Is Log Analysis Calibrated?
                  • Modern Formation For Fluid Identification
                  • Basic Components of the Tool
                  • Gas Detector System
                  • How OFA Divice Operates
                  • How Can We Differenciate Fluid Types ?
                  • Example--1 : Gas OFA
                  • Example-2 : Water OFA
                  • Example--3 : Oil OFA
                  • Are There Any Other Logs Applications?
                  • Hydrocarbon Reserves Estimate
                  • Lateral Continuity ?
                  • Compaction Trend ?
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Fundamentals of Rock Properties

                  Contents:
                    • What is Rock Reservoir
                    • Four Fundamental Components of Sedimentary Rocks
                    • Properties of Reservoir Rocks
                    • Porosity
                    • Video: What is Porosity
                    • Classification of Porosity
                    • Types of Porosity
                    • Factors that affect Porosity
                    • Permeability
                    • Three Types of Permeability
                    • Fluid Saturation
                    • Saturation Types
                    • Wettability
                    • Surface and Interfacial Tension
                    • Capillary Pressure
                    • Rock Compressibility
                    • Conclusion
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Porosity Determination From Logs

                    Contents:
                      • Openhole Log Evaluation
                      • Porosity Determination by Logging
                      • Porosity Log Types
                      • Density Logs
                      • Video: Density Logging Tool
                      • Bulk Density
                      • Porosity from Density Log
                      • Neutron Log
                      • Porosity from Neutron Log
                      • Acoustic (Sonic) Log
                      • Common Lithology Matrix Travel Times Used
                      • Sonic Log
                      • Example
                      • Example Solution Sonic Log
                      • Factors Affecting Sonic Log Response
                      • Responses of Porosity Logs
                      • Gas Effect
                      • Estimating Porosity From Well Logs
                      • Influence Of Clay-Mineral Distribution On Effective Porosity
                      • Geological and Petrophysical Data Used to Define Flow Units
                      • Schematic Reservoir Layering Profile in a Carbonate Reservoir
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Factors Affecting The Log Response

                      Contents:
                        • Depth of Investigation and Resolution of Logging Tools
                        • Tools Size and Measuring point for Typical Oil Based Mud Environment
                        • Tool Specification
                        • Resistivity Measurement Problems and Limitations
                        • Effects of Borehole Environment
                        • Invasion Profile
                        • SP Log Limitations
                        • GR Log Limitations
                        • Density Log Limitations
                        • Neutron Log Limitation
                        • Sonic Log Limitations
                        • Formation Test Log Limitations
                        • Well Evaluation Strategy
                        • Why Wireline Well Logging
                        • Disadvantages of Wireline Logging
                        • Important Issues with Running Wireline logs
                        • Logging While Drilling
                        • Video: Logging While Drilling
                        • Why LWD?
                        • Disadvantages of LWD
                        • LWD and Wireline Comparison
                        • Wireline Log Example
                        • LWD Real time and Recorded Logs
                        • Selecting the Tools to Run
                        • Ability to Define Your Need
                        • Type of Information to Acquire
                        • Understand the Scales Of Observation
                        • Scales Of Observation
                        • Various Well Logging Designs
                        • Well Logging Design Objective
                        • Example‐1 ‐ Logging Program
                        • Example‐2 Logging Program
                        • Important Aspects To Consider
                        • Exploratory Well
                        • An Example of rather complex Logging Program Decision Tree
                        • Another Way To Save Cost
                        • Project Base Approach
                        • Exercise With Well Log Design
                        • Exercise‐1
                        • Exercise‐2
                        • Exercise‐3
                        • Exercise‐4
                        • Module Quiz
                      • Module 8 - Electrical Properties Archie’s Law

                        Contents:
                          • Formation Factor
                          • Formation Factor Equation
                          • Formation Factor - Example Core Data
                          • Formation Factor
                          • Saturation Equation
                          • Lab Evaluation of N
                          • R0 Appears in Both Equations
                          • Archie’s Equation (Combined)
                          • Idealized Log Set
                          • Drilling Disturbs Formation
                          • Effect of Filtrate Invasion -Rnear_well  Rt (Permeability Present)
                          • Example Log With Resistivity
                          • Laboratory Resistance
                          • Laboratory Resistivity
                          • Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity
                          • DC Electrical Resistivity Experiment
                          • Factors Affecting Resistivity of Reservoirs
                          • Electrical Resistivity of Rock Constituents
                          • Electrical Resistivity of Rocks: Main Tendencies
                          • Electrical Resistivity of Clean Porous Rocks
                          • Archie (1942)
                          • Archie's Clean Sand Equation
                          • Formation Factor Vs. Porosity
                          • Formation Evaluation
                          • Electrical Logs
                          • Self (Spontaneous) Potential (SP) Log
                          • SP Log “Definition”
                          • SP Log Example
                          • SP Scales
                          • SP Log “General Uses”
                          • Practical Uses of SP Logs
                        • Module 9 - Self Potential Log and Resistivity Logs

                          Contents:
                            • Factors Affecting SP Log Measurements
                            • Rw calculation from SP
                            • Applications
                          • Module 10 - Formation Evaluation And Well Log

                            Contents:
                              • Well Log
                              • Basic Logs Tools and their Measurements
                              • Petrophysical Interpretation
                              • Basic Steps for Quick Look Evaluation
                              • Qualitative Interpretation
                              • Quantitative Interpretation Archie’s Equation
                              • Qualitative Interpretation vs Quantitative Interpretation
                              • Formation Evaluation Subsurface Methods
                              • Typical Hydrocarbon/water contact on resistivity log
                              • Water/hydrocarbon saturation determination
                              • Determining Water/Hydrocarbon Saturation
                              • Porosity Determination
                              • Detecting a Depleted Gas Reservoir
                              • Determination of Permeability (K)
                              • Depositional Environments and Processes
                              • Conclusion
                              • Video: Weatherford Formation Evaluation
                              • Module Quiz
                            • Post-Test

                              Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.