## Topic outline

### Training Methodology & Objectives

**Training Methodology**__This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-__- Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
- Simulation & Animation
- Exercises
- Videos
- Case Studies
- Gamification (learning through games)
- Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

**Course Objectives****After completing the course, the employee will:-**Apply and gain a comprehensive knowledge on oil well testing Discuss well testing as well as discuss well and completion design Demonstrate perforating and well testing as well as discuss the fundamental of fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs and fundamentals of well test theory Recognize the basis of transient well testing analysis and employ pressure drawdown and build up tests Describe well testing, logistics process and flowhead or test tree Carryout the objectives of well test operations and DST assembly using two straddle packers Employ open hole and cased hole drill stem testing including drill stem test assembly Identify the typical MFE openhole string and typical MFE inflate openhole string Recognize potential hazards and possible solutions including some specialized well test types Carryout multiple-well testing, interference testing and pulse testing Describe intelligent remote implementation system (IRIS) Discuss Huisman’s and Jacob’s modified correction method Identify confined, leaky and unconfined anisotropic aquifers Employ recovery test, residual drawdown, Theis recovery method and recovery test after constant discharge and drawdown test Apply Theis’s recovery method for leaky aquifers, unconfined aquifers and partially penetrating wells carryout variable-discharge tests and tests in well fields using Birsoy-Summer’s method Describe intermittent pumping, step-wise pumping and free-flowing wells Demonstrate Hantush-Bierschenk’s method, Eden-Hazel’s method, Rorabaugh’s method and Sheehan’s method Determine skin factor and apply methods to analyze single-well tests Discuss constant discharge methods comprising of Papadopulos-Cooper’s method, Rushton-Singh’s ration method, Jacob’s straight line method, Hurr-Worthington’s method, Theis’s recovery method and etc. Explain reservoir engineering objectives and determine reservoir rock properties, porosity, rock matrix and pore space and permeability Identify the effect of grain size on permeability and illustrate fluid saturation, in-situ saturation, wettability and capillary pressure Recognize 3-PVT and phase behavior of petroleum reservoir fluids as well as describe petroleum reservoir fluid composition Discuss API classification for crude oil and phase behavior of a single-component Illustrate 3-D diagram of single-component system, phase diagram for two pure components, phase diagram of a typical black oil, retrograde gas and dry gas Identify the five reservoir fluids and PVT analysis relationships Describe reservoir drive mechanisms and producing characteristics as well as reservoir depletion concepts Recognize reservoir solution gas drive mechanism and gravity drive mechanism Carryout pressure transient testing and reservoir/well testing as well as review schematic diagram of a well test Employ drawdown test, pressure buildup test, multi-rate test, drill stem test and well test including reservoir characterization Apply well testing analysis techniques, mechanisms governing transient testing, diffusivity equation and derivation of the diffusivity equation Discuss continuity equation, Darcy’s law, equation of state and diffusivity equation Demonstrate reservoir flow regime and describe transient flow, pseudo-steady-state flow (PSS) Identify solution for the diffusivity equation and constant terminal pressure rate solution ### Course Description

##### This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of oil well testing. It covers the well testing and well and completion design; perforating and well testing; the fundamental of fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs and fundamentals of well test theory; the basis of transient well testing analysis, pressure drawdown and build up tests; well testing, logistics process and flowhead or test tree; the objectives of well test operations and DST assembly using two straddle packers; the open hole and cased hole drill stem testing; the typical MFE openhole string and typical MFE inflate openhole string; the potential hazards, possible solutions and some specialized well test types; the multiple-well testing, interference testing and pulse testing; the intelligent remote implementation system (IRIS); the Huisman’s and Jacob’s modified correction method; and the confined, leaky and unconfined anisotropic aquifers

##### Further, the course will also discuss the recovery test, residual drawdown, Theis recovery method and recovery test after constant discharge and drawdown test; the Theis’s recovery method for leaky aquifers, unconfined aquifers and partially penetrating wells; the variable-discharge tests and tests in well fields using Birsoy-Summer’s method; the intermittent pumping, step-wise pumping and free-flowing wells; and the Hantush-Bierschenk’s method, Eden-Hazel’s method, Rorabaugh’s method and Sheehan’s method

##### During this course, participants will learn the skin factor and apply methods to analyze single-well tests; the constant discharge methods comprising of Papadopulos-Cooper’s method, Rushton-Singh’s ration method, Jacob’s straight line method, Hurr-Worthington’s method, Theis’s recovery method and etc.; the reservoir engineering objectives, reservoir rock properties; the porosity, rock matrix and pore space and permeability; the effect of grain size on permeability, fluid saturation, in-situ saturation, wettability and capillary pressure; the 3-PVT and phase behavior of petroleum reservoir fluids and petroleum reservoir fluid composition; the API classification for crude oil and phase behavior of a single-component; the 3-D diagram of single-component system, phase diagram for two pure components, phase diagram of a typical black oil, retrograde gas and dry gas; the five reservoir fluids and PVT analysis relationships; the reservoir drive mechanisms, producing characteristics and reservoir depletion concepts; the reservoir solution gas drive mechanism and gravity drive mechanism; the pressure transient testing, reservoir/well testing and review schematic diagram of a well test; the drawdown test, pressure buildup test, multi-rate test, drill stem test, well test and reservoir characterization; the well testing analysis techniques, mechanisms governing transient testing, diffusivity equation and derivation of the diffusivity equation; the continuity equation, Darcy’s law, equation of state and diffusivity equation; the reservoir flow regime, transient flow and pseudo-steady-state flow (PSS); and the solution for the diffusivity equation and constant terminal pressure rate solution

### Module 1 - Introduction to Well Testing

__Contents:__- Well Testing
- Most Common Oil Well Test Interpretation Methods
- Fundamental of Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs
- Basis of Transient Well Testing Analysis
- Fundamentals of Well Test Theory
- Pressure Drawdown & Build-up Tests
- Fundamentals
- Other Well Tests
- Video: Well Testing
- Module Quiz

### Module 2 - Well Tests

__Contents:__- Introduction
- Objectives of Well Test Operations
- Drill Stem Test (DST)
- DST Assembly Using Two Straddle packers
- Open Hole Drill Stem Testing
- Cased Hole Drill Stem Testing
- Typical MFE Openhole String Typical MFE Inflate Openhole String
- Drill Stem Test Assembly
- Test Choke
- Potential Hazards
- Possible Solutions
- Some Specialized Well Test Types
- Multiple-well testing
- Interference Testing
- Pulse Testing
- New Technology
- Intelligent Remote Implementation System (IRIS)
- Video: How a Drill Stem Test Is Run
- Module Quiz

### Module 3 - Partially Penetrating Wells

__Contents:__- Introduction
- Corrections
- Confined Aquifers (Steady-state)
- Huisman’s Correction Method II
- Confined Aquifers (Unsteady-state): Modified Hantush’s Method
- Leaky Aquifers (Steady-state)
- Leaky Aquifers (Unsteady-state): Weeks’s Modification of Walton and Hantush Curve-fitting Method
- Unconfined Anisotropic Aquifers (Unsteady-state): Streltsova’s Curve-fitting Method

### Module 4 - Recovery Test

__Contents:__- Residual Drawdown
- Theis Recovery Method
- Recovery Test After Constant Discharge Test
- Theis’s Recovery Method for Leaky Aquifers
- Theis’s Recovery Method for Unconfined Aquifers
- Theis’s Recovery Method for Partially Penetrating Wells
- Recovery Test after a Constant Drawdown Test
- Variable-discharge Tests and Tests In Well Fields
- Variable-discharge Tests
- Intermittent Pumping
- Step-wise Pumping
- Free-Flowing Wells
- Assumptions
- Recovery Test After Variable-Discharge Test
- Module Quiz

### Module 5 - Well Performance Tests Analysis and Evaluation

__Contents:__- Introduction
- Head Losses in a Pumped Well
- Step-Drawdown Test
- Variation to Jacob’s Equation
- Well Efficiency
- Total Drawdown Inside a Well due to Well Losses
- Hantush-Bierschenk’s Method
- Eden-Hazel’s Method
- Rorabaugh’s Method
- Sheahan’s Method
- Determination of the Skin Factor
- AQTESOLV
- Module Quiz

### Module 6 - Single Well Tests

__Contents:__- What is a Single Well Test?
- Methods to Analyze Single-well Tests
- Recovery Tests
- Constant Discharge Methods
- Papadopulos-Cooper’s Method 1: Assumptions
- Papadopulos-Cooper’s Method 2: The Equation
- Papadopulos-Cooper’s Method 3: Remarks
- Rushton-Singh’s Ratio Method 1: Assumptions/Uses
- Rushton-Singh’s Ratio Method 2: Equation
- Rushton-Singh’s Ratio Method 3: Remarks
- Jacob’s Straight Line Method 1: Uses/Assumptions
- Jacob’s Straight Line Method 2: Remarks
- Hurr-Worthington’s Method 1: Assumptions/Uses
- Hurr-Worthington’s Method 2: The Equation
- Hurr-Worthington’s Method 3: Remarks
- Variable Discharge Methods
- Birsory-Summers’s Method:
- Jacob-Lohman’s Free Flowing-well Method 2: Equation
- Leaky Aquifters, Hantush’s Free-flowing Well Method 1: Assumptions
- Leaky Aquifters, Hantush’s Free-flowing Well Method 2: Equation
- Recovery Tests
- Theis’s Recovery Method 1: Assumptions
- Theis’s Recovery Method 2: Remarks
- Eden-Hazel Method: Uses/Assumptions
- Module Quiz

### Module 7 - Slug Tests

__Contents:__- Background
- Types of Slug Tests
- Cooper’s Method (1967)
- Cooper’s Method: Assumptions
- Remarks
- Uffink’s Method
- Uffink’s Method: Assumptions and Conditions
- Bouwer-Rice’s Method
- Bouwer-Rice’s Method: Assumptions and Conditions
- Bouwer-Rice’s Method: Remarks
- Video: Slug Test

### Module 8 - Advanced Well Testing

__Contents:__- Introduction
- Reservoir Rock Properties
- Porosity
- Rock Matrix and Pore Space
- Permeability
- Effect of Grain Size on Permeability
- Fluid Saturation
- Saturation
- Saturation vs Grain Size
- In-Situ Saturation
- Contact Angle as a Measure of Wetting
- Wettability & Capillary Pressure: Oil-Water Contact : Transition Zone
- PVT & Phase Behaviour of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids
- Petroleum Reservoir Fluid Composition
- Hydrocarbon Phase-behavior - Pure Substances
- Phase Behaviour of a Single-Component
- 3-D Diagram of Single-Component System
- Phase Diagram for Two Pure Components
- Classification of Reservoir Fluids
- Fluids and Fluid Types The Effect of Separator Pressure
- The Main Five Reservoir Fluids
- Phase Diagram of a Typical Black Oil
- Phase Diagram of a Typical Retrograde Gas
- Phase Diagram of Typical Dry Gas
- The Five Reservoir Fluids
- Field Identification
- PVT Analysis Relationships
- Volumes in Surface vs. Downhole
- Reservoir Drive Mechanisms and Producing Characteristics
- Reservoir Depletion Concepts
- Oil Reservoir Drive Mechanisms
- Reservoir Energy Sources
- Solution-Gas Drive in Oil Reservoirs
- Reservoir
- Gas-Cap Drive in Oil Reservoirs
- A Gas-Cap Drive Reservoir
- Water Drive in Oil Reservoirs Edgewater Drive
- A Water Drive Reservoir
- Combination Drive in Oil Reservoirs
- Average Recovery Factors Oil Reservoirs
- Gas Reservoirs
- Preparation and Use of Well-test Reports
- Well Tests - General
- Responsibility for Test
- Preparation for Test Well
- Equipment Check
- Video: Reservoir - Rock Properties
- Module Quiz

### Module 9 - Pressure Transient Testing

__Contents:__- Reservoir/Well Testing
- Schematic Diagram of a Well Test
- Typical Job Sequence
- Test Types
- Drawdown Test
- Pressure Buildup Test
- Multi-rate Test
- Drill Stem Test – Flow to Surface
- Well Test – Field Case
- Objectives for Transient Testing
- Well Testing Analysis Techniques
- Mechanisms Governing Transient Testing
- Diagram of the Reservoir and Well
- Diffusivity Equation
- Derivation of the Diffusivity Equation
- Continuity Equation – Mass Conservation
- Darcy’s Law – Flow Through Porous Media
- Equation of State – Liquid
- Reservoir Fluid Flow Regime
- Transient Flow
- Pseudo-Steday-State Flow (PSS)
- Steady-State Flow (SS)
- Solution for the Diffusivity Equation
- Bounded Cylindrical Reservoir, Constant-pressure Outer Boundary (SS)
- Infinite Reservoir, Line Source Well (Transient)
- Solution Derivation Using the Boltzman Transform
- Applicability of line Source Solution
- Limiting Forms
- Flow States – Transient
- Flow States – Pseudo-Steady State (PSS)
- Video: Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) in oil and gas production

### Module 10 - Well Testing

__Contents:__- Type Curve
- Infinite Reservoir, Line Source Well (Transient)
- Agarwal Type Curve
- Type Curve Matching
- Gringarten Type Curve
- Bourdet’s Derivative Plot (1983)
- Wellbore Storage Effect (WBS)
- Infinite Acting Radial Flow (IARF)
- Combined Gringarten and Bourdet Plot
- The Pressure Derivative
- Flow Regimes
- Radial Flow Regimes for Vertical Wells
- Radial Flow Regimes for Horizontal Wells
- Spherical Flow Regimes
- Linear Flow Regimes
- Flow Regime Identification
- Time Region Identification
- Early and Middle Time Analysis
- Drawdown Analysis
- Cartesian Drawdown Analysis – C
- Semi-log Drawdown Analysis – s
- Log-Log Drawdown Analysis – C
- Log-Log Drawdown Analysis – k, s
- PBU Analysis (straight line methods)
- Cartesian PBU Analysis – C
- Horner PBU Analysis – k, p*
- Horner PBU Analysis – s
- Log-Log PBU Analysis – C, k, s
- Log-Log PBU Analysis – C
- Finite Conductivity Hydraulic Fracture
- Late Time Analysis
- Late-Time Analysis: Outer Boundary
- Closed Boundary – PSS Flow
- Rectangular Drainage Area
- Boundary Models – Single Sealing Fault
- Semi-log Plot
- Dimensionless Pressure Derivative Plot
- Intersecting Fault
- Time Region Analysis
- Well Testing Analysis Procedures
- Cutting-Edge Well Testing Technique
- Permanent Downhole Gauge
- Module Quiz