## Topic outline

### Training Methodology & Objectives

**Training Methodology**__This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-__- Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
- Simulation & Animation
- Exercises
- Videos
- Case Studies
- Gamification (learning through games)
- Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

**Course Objectives****After completing the course, the employee will:-**Apply and gain a fundamental knowledge on reservoir engineering Discuss the reservoir hydrocarbon distribution and fractals on the small and big scale Verify fractal as well as determine the bulk volume of water and the free water volume level Identify the structure and electrical properties of water, buoyancy forces in reservoir fluids and forces acting on reservoir fluids Differentiate water saturation and bulk volume of water versus height data as well as fractal water saturation versus height function Use the fractal function to identify the hydrocarbon to water contact and for depth control Compare log and core BVW functions as well as bulk volume of water versus height data Recognize capillary pressure formula, upscaling water and irreducible water saturation including reservoir fluid properties Identify the characteristics of reservoir rocks and the four major components of sandstone Describe coring assembly and core bit, whole core analysis and plugs or sidewall cores Discuss the fundamentals of reservoir fluids phase behavior and classification of reservoirs and reservoir fluids Explain basic concepts of origin, accumulation and recovery of hydrocarbons and the elements of petroleum reservoir fluid content of the reservoir Identify the classification of hydrocarbon reservoir and reservoir fluids Review pressure-temperature diagram, types of crude oil and steady-state and pseudo steady state flow ### Course Description

##### This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of the fundamentals of reservoir engineering. It covers the reservoir hydrocarbon distribution and fractals on the small and big scale; the bulk volume of water and the free water volume level; the structure and electrical properties of water and buoyancy forces in reservoir fluids; the water saturation, bulk volume of water and height data; the fractal water saturation and height function; the fractal function to identify the hydrocarbon to water contact and for depth control; the comparison of log and core BVW functions; the capillary pressure formula, upscaling water and irreducible water saturation; and the reservoir fluid properties

##### During this course, participants will learn the characteristics of reservoir rocks and the four major components of sandstone; the coring assembly, core bit, whole core analysis and plugs or sidewall cores; the fundamentals of reservoir fluids phase behavior; the classification of reservoirs and reservoir fluids; the basic concepts of origin, accumulation and recovery of hydrocarbons; the elements of petroleum reservoir; the fluid content of the reservoir; the classification of hydrocarbon reservoir and reservoir fluids; and the pressure-temperature diagram, types of crude oil and steady-state and pseudo steady state flow

### Module 1 - Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering

__Contents:__- Why We Need a Reservoir Model
- What are Fractals?
- Fractals on the Small Scale
- Fractals on the Big Scale
- Fractals on the Really Big Scale
- Why Fractals are Useful
- How to Verify if Something is Fractal
- Coastline Fractals
- Fractals in Reservoir Rocks
- The Bulk Volume of Water (BVW)
- The Free Water Level (FWL)
- Hydrocarbon Water Contact
- The Reservoir Model Needs a Sw vs. Height Function
- What a Good Saturation Height Function Requires
- The Structure and Electrical Properties of Water
- Buoyancy Forces in Reservoir Fluids
- Forces Acting on Reservoir Fluids
- Fractals Describe the Rock Pore Network
- Water Saturation vs. Height Data
- Classical Water Saturation vs. Height Curves
- Problems with Classical Swh Functions
- Water Saturation vs. Height Data
- Bulk Volume of Water vs. Height Data
- BVW is Independent of Rock Properties
- Net Reservoir Cut-off
- What the Fractal Function Tells us About Net Reservoir
- Net Reservoir Example
- The Fractal Water Saturation vs. Height Function
- Sw vs. Height Modelling
- Sw vs. Height modelling Results
- Core Water Saturations
- The Differential Reservoir Model
- Picking the Free Water Level
- Using the Fractal Function to Identify the Hydrocarbon to Water Contact
- Using the Fractal Function for Depth Control
- Log and Core Data From 11 North Sea Fields Compared
- Case Study Results
- Comparison between Log and Core BVW Functions
- Conclusions – Fractals and Hydrocarbon Volumes
- Water Saturation vs. Height Data
- What’s Benoit B. Mandelbrot Middle Name?
- Capillary Pressure Holds the Water up
- Capillary Pressure Formula
- Capillary Pressure and Pore Size
- Gravity Pulls the Water Down
- Forces Acting on Reservoir Fluids
- Upscaling Water Saturations
- Irreducible Water Saturation (Swirr)
- Uncertainty Modelling
- Case Study
- Module Quiz

### Module 2 - Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering

__Contents:__- Introduction
- Reservoir Fluid Properties?
- Reservoir Rocks
- Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks
- Source of Data: Coring
- Rock Matrix and Pore Space
- Four Major Components of Sandstone
- Four Components of Sandstone
- Coring Assembly and Core Bit
- Coring
- Whole Core
- Sidewall Sampling Gun
- Sidewall Coring Tool
- Whole Core Analysis vs. Plugs or Sidewall Cores
- Information from Cores
- Case Study
- Module Quiz

### Module 3 - Fundamentals of Reservoir Fluids Phase Behavior

__Contents:__- Classification of Reservoirs and Reservoir Fluids
- Pressure-Temperature Diagram
- Petroleum Geology
- How is Petroleum Formed
- What is a Trap?
- Where Petroleum is Found?
- Basic Concepts of Origin, Accumulation and Recovery of Hydrocarbons
- Elements of Petroleum Reservoir Fluid Content of the Reservoir
- Porosity and Effective Porosity
- Porosity
- Absolute Porosity
- Effective Porosity
- Permeability and Darcy’s Law
- Permeability
- Linear Flow Model
- Saturation
- Critical Oil Saturation, Soc
- Residual Oil Saturation, Sor
- Movable Oil Saturation, Som
- Critical Gas Saturation, Sgc
- Critical Water Saturation, Swc
- Capillary Pressure and Its Curve
- Capillary Pressure
- Figure - 4
- Transition Zone
- Water Oil Contact
- Gas Oil Contact
- Figure - 5
- Wettability and Distribution of Reservoir Fluids
- Wettability
- Properties of Natural Gas
- PVT Behaviour
- Classification of Hydrocarbon Reservoir
- Classification of Reservoirs and Reservoir Fluids
- Pressure-Temperature Diagram
- Types of Crude Oil
- Gas Reservoirs
- Retrograde Gas-Condensate Reservoir
- Wet-Gas Reservoir
- Dry-gas Reservoir
- Steady-state and Pseudo Steady-state Flow
- Types of Fluids
- Slightly Compressible Fluids
- Compressible Fluids
- Flow Regimes
- Unsteady-State Flow
- Pseudo Steady-State Flow
- Reservoir Geometry
- Linear Flow
- Spherical and Hemispherical Flow
- Number of Flowing Fluids in The Reservoir
- Horizontal Wells
- Method 1
- Method 2
- Natural Flow Recovery
- Mechanical Recovery (Rod System)
- Fomation Damage Control
- Skin Factor
- Case Study 3: Analysis of Formation Damage Induced by Brine Workover Fluid on Burcioaia Reservoir (Romania) and Research on Damage Removal Methods
- Video: Measuring Permeability and Porosity of Rocks
- Module Quiz

### Module 4 - Life Cycle of Oil & Gas Wells

__Contents:__- Introduction
- Well Types
- Life Segments of Oil & Gas Wells
- Planning
- Drilling
- A - Land or Onshore Rig
- B - Offshore Rig: 1-Jack-up Rigs
- B - Offshore Rig: 2-Submersible Rigs
- B - Offshore Rig: 3-Semi-Submersible Rigs
- B - Offshore Rig: 4-Platform Rigs
- B - Off-shore Rig: 5-Drill Ships
- Drilling: Rig Crew
- Drilling: Rigging-up
- Drilling Operations:
- Drilling Operations: A-Oil Based Mud
- Drilling Operations: What’s the Meaning of Kick
- Well Casing
- Well Casing: 1 - Conductor Casing
- Well Casing: 2 - Surface Casing
- Well Casing: 3 - Intermediate Casing
- Well Casing: 4 - Production Casing
- Well Casing: 5 - Liner Casing
- Completion
- Completion Design Criteria
- Objectives of Completion
- Classifications of Completion
- Classifications of Completion: 1-Open Hole Completion
- Classifications of Completion: 2-Cased Perforated Completion
- Classifications of Completion: 4- Multiple Zone Completion
- Completion Components
- Completion Components: 1-Well Head
- A-Casing Head
- B-Tubing Head
- Christ-Mass Tree:
- Completion Components: 2-Safety Control Sub-Surface Safety Valve
- Completion Components: 3-Side Pocket Mandrel
- Completion Components: 4-Sliding Sleeves
- Completion Components: 5-Landing Nipples
- Completion Components: 6-Packers
- Completion Components: 7-Perforated Joint
- Production
- Well Intervention
- Well Stimulation
- Well & Reservoir Management WRM
- Well & Reservoir Management WRM: Integrated Production System
- Well & Reservoir Management WRM:
- Well & Reservoir Management WRM: Well Testing & Sampling
- Abandonment
- Drilling
- Case Study 4: Optimization of Acid Fracturing for a Tight Carbonate Reservoir
- Video: Drilling and Well Stimulation- A Model Oil Well Exp
- Module Quiz

### Module 5 - Definition of Reserves and Volume

__Contents:__- Reservoir
- Reservoir Rock
- Reservoir Engineering
- Goal of Reservoir Engineering
- Calculation of Hydrocarbon Volumes
- The Stock Tank Oil Initially in Place
- Reservoir Engineering Application
- Resources
- General Definition of Resources
- Key Elements of Resources
- Total Petroleum Initially-in-Place (TPIIP)
- Discovered vs Undiscovered PIIP
- Discovered Resources
- Undiscovered
- Reserves
- General Overview of Reserves
- Definition of Reserves
- Condition for to be Called Reserves
- Reserves Estimation
- Reserves Category
- Further Classification
- Levels of Certainty in Reported Reserves
- Reserve Estimation – Recovery Factor
- Worldwide End-of-Year Proved Oil Reserves
- Proven Oil Reserves Distribution
- Relation Between Resources and Reserves
- Risks Related to Resources
- Chance of Commerciality
- Chance of Discovery
- Resources Classification Framework
- Current Resources
- General Requirements for Classification of Reservoirs
- Procedure for Reserve Estimation
- Volumetric Method
- Material Balance
- Production Decline Analysis
- Future Drilling and Planned Enhanced Recovery Projects
- Validation of Reserves Estimates
- Case Study: A New Approach to Finding Effective Parameters Controlling The Performance Of Multi-stage Fractured Horizontal Wells in Low-permeability Heavy-oil Reservoirs Using RSM Technique

### Module 6 - Darcy’s Law and Fundamentals of Fluid Flow in

__Contents:__- Finite Element Method
- Introduction
- Derivation of Basics Differential Equations
- Darcy’s Law
- Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow
- Fluid Flow in Pipes and Around Solid Bodies
- One-Dimensional Finite Element Formulation For Fluid Flow Through Porous Media
- Step 1: Select Element Type
- Step 2 : Choose a Potential Function
- Step3: Define the Gradient/Potential and Velocity/Gradient Relationships
- Step 4: Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations
- Step 5 Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the Global Equations and Introduce Boundary Conditions
- Step 6 Solve for the Nodal Potentials
- Step 7 Solve for the Element Velocities and Volumetric Flow Rates
- Problem
- Finite Element Formulation of a Two Dimensional Fluid Flow
- Step 1: Element Type
- Step2: The Potential Function
- Step: 3 Define the Gradient/Potential and Velocity/Gradient Relationships
- Step 4: Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations
- Step 5 Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the Global Equations and Introduce Boundary Conditions
- Step 6 Solve for the Nodal Potentials
- Step 7 Solve for the Element Velocities and Volumetric Flow Rates
- Example
- Solution
- Case Study: Control of Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production Tubing
- Video: Darcy's Law

### Module 7 - Nodal Analysis: Introduction to Inflow

__Contents:__- Nodal Analysis Concept
- Graphical Solution of The Problem
- Exercise # 1 Ilustration of Nodal Analysis Concept
- Why ‘Nodal’?
- Pressure Losses in Well System
- Nodal Analysis
- Well Outflow Performance
- Reservoir Inflow Performance
- Types of Outflow Systems
- Wellbore Flow Performance (Outflow)
- Single Phase Flow Basic Concepts
- Fundamentals of Fluid Flow in Pipes
- Friction Losses Calculation
- Friction Factor Calculation (Single Phase Flow)
- Moody Diagram for Friction Factor Calculation
- Exercise 10 Single Phase Flow
- Oil Reservoir Phase Envelop
- Multiphase Flow
- Gravity Term
- Friction Term
- Acceleration Term
- Basic Concepts
- No-Slip Liquid Holdup (Input Liquid Content), λ
- Superficial Gas Velocity, VSG
- Superficial Liquid Velocity, VSL
- Vertical Flow Parameters
- Two-Phase Vertical Flow
- Vertical Flow Paterns
- Horizontal Flow Paterns
- 2-Phase – Gas-Liq Flow Regimes
- Flow Regime (Ros)
- Correlations
- Procedure For Pressure Traverse Calculation (Incrementing Pressure Drop)
- Outflow Calculation (Node at the Bottomhole
- Well Performance Software
- Effect Of The Tubing Size (Node Selected at the Bottomhole)
- Finding Optimum Tubing Size
- Tubing Size in Depleting Reservoir
- Effect of Gas Injection Rate
- Gas Lift Performance Curve
- Inflow Performance Curve
- Outflow Performance Curve
- System Graph – Wellhead Node
- Nodal Analysis: Uses
- Nodal Analysis
- The Inflow Performance Relationship Dependent On
- Effect of Skin in IPR
- Effect of Pressure Depletion in IPR
- The Outflow Performance Relationship Dependent On
- Effect of Tubing Size in Outflow
- Case Study: Understanding and Mitigating Downhole Corrosion and Wear Failures
- Video: Nodal Analysis Example
- Module Quiz

### Module 8 - Reservoir Drive Mechanisms

__Contents:__- Types of Reservoir Drive Mechanism
- Video: Reservoir - Solution Gas Drive
- Primary Recovery
- Drive Mechanisms in Primary Recovery
- Solution Gas Drive Mechanism
- Oil Recovery from Solution Gas Drive Reservoirs
- Gas Cap Drive
- Water Drive Mechanism
- Gravity Drainage
- Combination or Mixed Drive
- Secondary Recovery
- Water Flooding Mechanism
- Gas Flooding Mechanism
- Tertiary Recovery (EOR)
- Thermal EOR
- Chemical EOR
- Miscible Gas
- Infill Recovery
- Case Study: Successful Oil and Gas Production Well Applications of Thermoplastic Lined Downhole Tubing: A Compilation of Case Histories Dating Back to 1996
- Video: Reservoir - Solution Gas Drive
- Module Quiz

### Module 9 - Principles of Material Balance Analysis

__Contents:__- Material Balance Equations
- Block Diagram of Reservoir
- Initial and Final Fluid Conditions
- Material Balance Equation for a Closed Gas Reservoir
- Case Study: Completion Design and Operation in High Dogleg Coiled Tubing Drilling Wells

### Module 10 - Immiscible Displacement Concepts

__Contents:__- Recovery/Frontal Displacement
- Flooding Patterns
- Fractional Flow Equation
- Recovery Efficiency
- Overall Recovery Efficiency
- Displacement Efficiency
- Areal Sweep Efficiency
- Vertical Sweep Efficiency
- Volumetric Sweep Efficiency
- Reservoir Heterogeneity
- Vertical Heterogeneity
- Areal Heterogeneity
- Vertical vs. Areal Heterogeneity
- Displacement Efficiency
- Displacement Efficiency Definition
- Displacement Efficiency Expression
- Displacement Efficiency Calculation
- Video: Enhance Oil Recovery - Displacement Efficiency
- Frontal Displacement
- Average Water Saturation in the Swept Area
- Frontal Displacement Theory
- Fractional Flow Equation
- Flash Back: Fluid Potential in Tilted Reservoir
- Fluid Density Under Reservoir Condition vs. Specific Gravity
- Linear Displacement in a Tilted System
- Fractional Flow Expression for Water
- Fractional Flow Parameters
- Fractional Flow Expression General
- Gas Fractional Flow
- Fractional Flow: Neglecting Pc
- Fractional Flow Range
- Fractional Flow Curves a Function of Saturations
- Effects of Displacement Efficiency
- Relation Between fo & fw
- Case Study: Open and Cased Hole Well Completions in More than 400 Wells in On-Shore Block in India
- Video: Enhance Oil Recovery - Displacement Efficiency
- Module Quiz