Topic outline

  • Seismic Reflection

    This course provides an overview of all significant aspects and considerations of seismic reflection for geoscientists and engineers having a basic understanding of rock physics and seismic imaging, and who would like to learn more about seismic inversion tools capable of improving their knowledge of conventional and unconventional reservoirs
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain a comprehensive knowledge on seismic reflection Discuss geophysics, waves, seismic waves, wavefronts and raypaths
      Identify the parameters associated with a wave including the types of waves Describe particle motion, elastic deformations, wave energy, wave velocity and typical p-wave velocities
      Explain Huygens principle as well as reflections and critical refractions Identify reflection and transmission coefficient, critical angle, energy arrivals and refracted waves
      Recognize spherical waves and attenuation including spherical divergence, bandpass filter panels of raw shot record Review seismic trace, geologic section, generation of noise-free seismic trace, coincident sources and receivers and traces recorded from coincident sources and receivers
      Determine normal moveout for a dipping reflector and differentiate simple and simple multiple NMO model Employ temporal resolution and temporal aliasing as well as review simple migration model
      Process and migrate seismic recordings and carryout seismic methods and surveying Determine elastic moduli and P and S velocities and employ reflection and transmission
      Identify the typical rock velocity ranges and the factors affecting velocity Illustrate reflection surveying, seismic reflection processing, demultiplexing, editing and muting
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of seismic reflection. It covers the geophysics, waves, seismic waves, wavefronts and raypaths; the parameters associated with a wave including the types of waves; the particle motion, elastic deformations, wave energy, wave velocity and typical p-wave velocities; the Huygens principle, reflections and critical refractions; the reflection and transmission coefficient, critical angle, energy arrivals and refracted waves; and the spherical waves and attenuation
        During this course, participants will learn the spherical divergence, bandpass filter panels of raw shot record; the seismic trace, geologic section, generation of noise-free seismic trace, coincident sources and receivers and traces recorded from coincident sources and receivers; the normal moveout for a dipping reflector, simple and simple multiple NMO model; the temporal resolution,  temporal aliasing and simple migration model; the processing and migration of seismic recordings, the seismic methods and surveying; the elastic moduli and P and S velocities; the reflection and transmission; the typical rock velocity ranges; the factors affecting velocity; and the reflection surveying, seismic reflection processing, demultiplexing, editing and muting
        • Module 1 - Geophysics

          Contents:
            • Waves
            • Seismic Waves - Generation
            • Wavefronts
            • Raypaths
            • Wavefronts and Raypaths
            • The Seismic Experiment
            • Parameters Associated with a Wave
            • Wave Types
            • Body Waves
            • P Waves
            • S Waves
            • P and S Waves
            • Surface Waves
            • Rayleigh and Love Waves
            • Particle Motion
            • Elastic Deformations
            • Wave Energy
            • Wave Velocity
            • Typical P-Wave Velocities
            • Huygens’ Principle
            • Interfaces
            • Reflections and Refractions
            • Reflection
            • Refraction
            • Critical Refraction
            • Mode Conversion
            • Interfaces - Mode Conversion
            • Reflection and Transmission Coefficient
            • Reflection Coefficient
            • Reflection Coefficient - Example
            • Critical Angle
            • Energy Arrivals
            • Refracted Waves
            • Multiples
            • Multiples - Example
            • Ghosts
            • Diffractions
            • Example of Diffractions
            • Summary
            • Video: Reflection vs Refraction
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Reflection Seismology

            Contents:
              • P Waves and S Waves
              • Wave Motion Particle Motion
              • Reflection Seismic
              • Surface Waves
              • Shear Waves
              • Rayleigh Waves
              • Love Waves
              • Spherical Waves and Attenuation
              • Spherical Divergence
              • Attenuation
              • Bandpass Filter Panels of Raw Shot Record
              • With Geometric Spreading
              • Acoustic Impedance
              • Seismic Reflectivity
              • Rock Velocity vs Density
              • Seismic Trace
              • Geologic Section
              • Generation of Noise-Free Seismic Trace
              • Coincident Sources and Receivers
              • Traces Recorded from Coincident Sources and Receivers
              • One Source Shot Into Multiple Receivers
              • Traces Recorded From One Source Into Multiple Receivers
              • NMO (Normal Moveout Correction)
              • Normal Moveout for a Dipping Reflector
              • Effect of Low Velocity Layer
              • Midpoints, Stacking and Fold
              • NMO
              • Simple NMO Model
              • Simple Multiple Model
              • NMO Corrected
              • Stack
              • NMO Stretch
              • Stretch Varies with Offset
              • Useable Offsets
              • Frequency and Time
              • Temporal Resolution
              • Resolution and Detection Curves
              • Phase
              • Temporal Aliasing
              • Simple Migration Model
              • The Seismic Recordings are Further Processed and Migrated
              • Decibel (dB)
              • Decibel (dB) Scale
              • Video: What is Seismic Reflection
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Seismic Methods: Waves and Rays - 1

              Contents:
                • Seismic Surveying
                • Elastic Waves
                • Waves – A Reminder
                • Body Waves P-Waves
                • Body Waves S-Waves
                • Body Waves P and S-waves
                • Elastic Moduli
                • P and S-velocities
                • Surface Waves
                • Reflection and Transmission
                • Amplitudes Reflected and Transmitted
                • Diffraction
                • Critical Incidence
                • Head Wave
                • Factors Affecting Velocity
                • Nafe-Drake Curve
                • Typical Rock Velocity Ranges
                • Seismic Methods: Waves and Rays - 2
                • Normal Move Out (NMO)
                • Multiple Layers
                • NMO for Layers
                • Factors Affecting Velocity
                • Seismic Sources
                • Seismic Receivers
                • Deployment
                • Seismic Methods: Seismic Reflection - 1
                • Reflection Surveying
                • Shot Gathers
                • Common Midpoint Gathers
                • Collecting Common Midpoint Gathers
                • Common Midpoint Gathers
                • 3D Surveys
                • Seismic Reflection Processing
                • Preprocessing Demultiplexing
                • Preprocessing Editing and Muting
                • Preprocessing Gain Recovery
                • Static Corrections
                • Reflectivity and Convolution
                • Convolution
                • Seismic Methods: Seismic Reflection - 4
                • Dipping Layers
                • Migration
                • Diffraction Hyperbolae
                • A Non-migrated Section
                • Anticlines and Synclines
                • Migration Procedure
                • Velocity Distortions
                • Fault Distortions
                • Lateral Velocity Variations
                • Source, Reservoir and Trap
                • Salt Dome
                • Faults and Flat Spots
                • Delineating Bedrock
                • Locating Faults
                • Video: Seismic Survey Methods
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Velocity Sensitivity

                Contents:
                  • Source Spectrum
                  • Attenuation
                  • Reflection and Transmission
                  • Head Wave
                  • Birch’s Law
                  • Typical Rock Velocity Ranges
                • Module 5 - Seismic Methods: Seismic Reflection - 4

                  Contents:
                    • Seismic Reflection Processing
                    • Dipping Layers
                    • Migration
                    • Diffraction Hyperbolae
                    • A Non-migrated Section
                    • Anticlines and Synclines
                    • Migration Procedure
                    • Velocity Distortions
                    • Fault Distortions
                    • Lateral Velocity Variations
                    • Source, Reservoir and Trap
                    • Salt Dome
                    • Faults and Flat Spots
                    • Delineating Bedrock
                    • Groundwater
                    • Locating Faults
                    • Locating Voids
                    • Seismic Methods: Refraction 1
                    • Pre-Critical Incidence
                    • Critical Incidence
                    • Post-Critical Incidence
                    • Horizontal Interface
                    • Three-layer Model
                    • Multiple-layered Models
                    • Horizontal vs. Vertical Velocity Contrasts
                    • Mapping Vertical Contacts
                    • Dipping Layers
                    • Reversing Lines
                    • Dipping Layer Traveltime
                    • Dipping Layer Example
                    • Seismic Methods: Refraction 2 Advanced Interpretation
                    • Real Earth “Flat” Layers
                    • Phantom Arrivals
                    • Separation of Delay Times
                    • The Plus-Minus Method
                    • Generalized Reciprocal Method
                    • Experiment Design
                    • Limitations Low Velocity Layers
                    • Limitations Hidden Layers
                    • Velocity and Rock Strength
                    • Seismic Methods: Refraction 3 Examples and Limitations
                    • Generalized Reciprocal Method
                    • Rockhead Determination for Waste Disposal Site
                    • Archeological Investigations
                    • Air Sparging: Testing Effectiveness
                    • Quarry Survey
                    • Crystal Structure of the Alps
                    • Video: Seismic Reflection Survey
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Introduction and Theoretical Background

                    Contents:
                      • Introduction
                      • Geophysical Methods
                      • Potential Fields Methods
                      • Seismic Methods
                      • Seismic Waves
                      • Wave Propagation Concepts
                      • Classification of Seismic Waves
                      • Wave Elements
                      • Wave Front
                      • Recorded Seismic Waves
                      • Ray Paths
                      • Ghost Reflection
                      • Multiple Reflection
                      • Seismic Refraction
                      • Seismic Diffraction
                      • Attenuation of Seismic Waves
                      • Seismic Waves Velocity
                      • Reservoir Velocity Estimation
                      • Time Average Equation to Estimate Porosity
                      • Reflection and Transmission of Seismic Rays
                      • Reflection Coefficient
                      • Overview of Seismic Data Acquisition
                      • Seismic Data Acquisition Fields
                      • Seismic Data Acquisition Systems
                      • Seismic Energy Sources
                      • Seismic Receivers
                      • Seismic Acquisition Geometries
                      • Multiple Shotpoints
                      • Common Mid Points
                      • Seismic Data Recording
                      • Recorded Seismic Data
                      • Noises Affecting Seismic Recording
                      • Classification of Noises
                      • Noises Example
                      • Overview of Seismic Data Processing
                      • Basic Seismic Processing Flow
                      • More Seismic Processing Flow
                      • Demultiplexing
                      • Gain Recovery
                      • Automatic Gain Control
                      • Trace Editing
                      • Static Corrections
                      • Deconvolution
                      • F/K Filtering
                      • Frequency Filtering
                      • CMP Sorting (Gathering)
                      • Normal Moveout Correction (NMO)
                      • Multiples Attenuation
                      • CMP Stacking
                      • Migration
                      • Un-Migrated Seismic Section
                      • Pre-stack Depth Migrated Seismic Section
                      • Video: Introduction to Seismic Subsurface Exploration
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Overview of Seismic Data Interpretation

                      Contents:
                        • Two Dimensional versus Three Dimensional
                        • Seismic to Well Tie
                        • The Synthetic Seismogram
                        • Seismic Structural Interpretation
                        • Seismic Stratigraphic Interpretation
                        • Coherence Interpretation
                        • Spectral Decomposition Interpretation
                        • 4D Seismic Interpretation
                        • Multi-Component Seismic Interpretation
                        • Amplitude versus Offset (AVO) Interpretation
                        • Video: Seismic Data Processing
                        • Module Quiz
                      • Post-Test

                        Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.