Topic outline

  • Basic Processing

    This course provides an overview of all significant aspects and considerations of basic processing for entry or junior level geophysicists and more experienced staff who interpret seismic data and need exposure to acquisition and processing techniques
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain a comprehensive knowledge on basic processing Describe processing flow, the sequence of events, data processing and processing sequence
      Discuss geometry definition, static corrections, amplitude recovery, velocity filtering, deconvolution, CMP gather, demultiple, NMO correction, DMO correction, CMP stack and migration Employ pre stack migration (2D marine) as well as illustrate 3D and 2D processing sequence
      Describe generalized 2D land processing flow chart, 2D post-stack depth migration flow chart, generalized 3D land processing flow chart, 3D post-stack depth migration flow chart and generalized 3D marine processing flow chart Discuss Snell’s reflection law and apply seismic selection and seismic data processing
      Review data after geometry applied and carryout trace editing and attenuation Evaluate weather statics and datum plane statics as well as employ deconvolution and F-k filtering
      Discuss the seismic trace, common midpoint gathering and NMO curves Employ velocity analysis, processing sequence, dynamic corrections and bandpass filtering
      Identify the bidirectional reflector, types of multiples, interbed and intrabed multiples and characteristics of multiples Determine wavefront impinging upon a dipping reflector and use wavefront chart in conjunction with a simple reflection model
      Recognize the common tangent to the wavefronts and apply a more realistic approach Discuss the basic theory covering geometrical approach and theorical approach
      • Course Description

        This E-learning course is designed to provide participants with a basic overview of processing. It covers the processing flow, the sequence of events, data processing and processing sequence; the geometry definition, static corrections, amplitude recovery, velocity filtering, deconvolution, CMP gather, demultiple, NMO correction, DMO correction, CMP stack and migration; the pre stack migration (2D marine), 3D and 2D processing sequence; the generalized 2D land processing flow chart, 2D post-stack depth migration flow chart, generalized 3D land processing flow chart, 3D post-stack depth migration flow chart and generalized 3D marine processing flow chart; the Snell’s reflection law, the seismic selection and seismic data processing; and the data after geometry applied, trace editing and attenuation 
        During this course, participants will learn the weathering and evaluation of statics and datum plane statics; the deconvolution and F-k filtering; the seismic trace, common mid point gather and NMO curves; the velocity analysis, processing sequence, dynamic corrections and bandpass filtering; the bidirectional reflector, types of multiples, interbed and intrabed multiples and characteristics of multiples; the wavefront impinging upon a dipping reflector, the use of wavefront chart in conjunction with a simple reflection model; the common tangent to the wavefronts and a more realistic approach; and the basic theory covering geometrical approach and theorical approach
        • Module 1 - Processing Flow

          Contents:
            • The Sequence of Events
            • Data Processing - In the Beginning
            • Data Processing - What Next?
            • Why Reformat?
            • Data Processing - Raw Shot Data
            • Multiple Coverage
            • Demultiple
            • DMO Correction
            • CMP Stack
            • Migration
            • Pre Stack Migration (2D Marine)
            • Processing Sequence (3D Marine)
            • Processing Sequence (2D Land)
            • Summary
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Processing Overview

            Contents:
              • Snell’s Reflection Law
              • Midpoint
              • The Seismic Section
              • Objectives of Seismic Data Processing
              • Accuracy and Resolution
              • Extraction of Subsurface Properties - Amplitudes
              • Extraction of Subsurface Properties - Velocities
              • Extraction of Subsurface Properties - Frequencies
              • Processing Sequence – Reformatting/Geometry
              • Processing Sequence - Pre-Processing
              • Processing Sequence - NMO/Stack
              • Processing Sequence – Advanced Processing
              • Data – Trace - Header
              • SPS Information to Update Header Words
              • Data After Geometry Applied
              • Trace Editing
              • Attenuation
              • Amplitude Decay/Recovery Curves
              • Weathering and Elevation Statics, Datum Plane Statics
              • Deconvolution
              • What is the Wavelet?
              • The Seismic Trace (Without Decon)
              • Deconvolution
              • F-k Filtering
              • Common Mid Point (CMP) Gather
              • NMO Curves
              • Velocity Analysis
              • Processing Sequence – Velocity Picking
              • Dynamic Corrections
              • Mute - After CDP Gather and NMO
              • Muting Effect
              • CMP Stack (After NMO and Mute]
              • Processing Sequence – Brut Stack
              • Brandpass Filtering
              • Multiples - The Bidirectional Reflector
              • Multiples – Types of Multiples
              • Multiples - Interbed and Intrabed MuItipIes
              • Multiples – Multiple Recognition - Summary
              • Multiples – Characteristics of Multiples
              • Multiples - Attenuation
              • Residual Statistics – Horizon Picking on Stack
              • Processing Sequence – Residual Statistics
              • Migration - Introduction
              • Migration - Zero Offset
              • Migration – Effect of Dip
              • Migration - Wavefront Migration
              • Dip Moveout- Basic Theory - Geometrical Approach Theorical Approach
              • Basic Geometry
              • Reflection Point Smearing
              • Dip versus Velocity
              • Dip Moveout Geometry
              • Dip Moveout Basics
              • 2D Dip Moveout Impulse Respons
              • 3D Dip Moveout Impulse Response
              • General DMO Sequence
              • Standard Seismic Processing & Data Flow
              • Geovecteur Modules
              • Summary
              • Video: The Wavelet Transform for Beginners
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Migration - Introduction

              Contents:
                • Introduction
                • Zero Offset
                • Is Dip Relevant?
                • Effect of Dip
                • Limitations
                • Wavefront Migration
                • Migration - Wavefront Migration
                • Diffraction Curves
                • Wavefronts and Diffraction Curves
                • Migration - Methods
                • Kirchoff Summation Migration
                • Finite Difference Migration
                • Frequency/Wavenumber (f-k) Migration
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Processing of Reflection Data

                Contents:
                  • Demultiplexing
                  • Dataformats
                  • SEGY-Format
                  • Editing
                  • Geometry
                  • Raypaths for a Given Bin
                  • Statics
                  • Surface Consistent Statics
                  • Static Corrections
                  • Muting of Events
                  • Muting of Events
                  • Basic Scheme of the Seismic Data Processing
                  • Migration - a Definition
                  • Aim of Migration
                  • Geometrical Distortion
                  • Point Scatterer
                  • Migration/Imaging Algorithm:
                  • Wavefront Charting
                  • Dipping Layer
                  • Syncline (Valley)
                  • Structural Model of the Subsurface
                  • Stacked Section without Migration
                  • Anticline and Syncline
                  • Over and Under Migration
                  • Undermigrated Data
                  • Overmigrated Data
                  • Methods for (Post-stack) Migration
                  • Depth Migration (Lateral Velocity Changes) Huygens’ Secondary Sources
                  • Difference Migration
                  • FK Migration
                  • Muting of Events
                  • Wave Equation Migration
                  • Edge Effects
                  • Lateral Velocity Variation?
                  • Image Rays
                  • Depth Migration
                  • Migration Types
                  • Three-dimensional versus Two-dimensional Migration
                  • Types of Migration – Cheap/Expensive
                  • Post-/Pre-stack Time/Depth Migration
                  • Subsurface Model used in Seismic Processing
                  • Post Stack Depth Migration
                  • Optimising the Acquisition & Processing of 3D Seismic Data
                  • 3-D Acquisition Ray Paths and Reflection Points
                  • Factors Affecting Amplitudes
                  • Initial Processing - Amplitude Recovery
                  • Attenuation Compensation
                  • Attenuation
                  • VSP Amplitude Spectrum versus Depth
                  • Impact of Q Processing
                  • Statics
                  • Static Corrections
                  • First Pass Statics versus Residual Statics
                  • Pre-Stack Time Migration
                  • Effect of Dip on Velocity
                  • The Effect of Dip at Non-Zero Offset
                  • Failure of Lime Migration
                  • Time and Depth Migration (Constant Velocity)
                  • Depth Migration Myths & Truths
                  • Anisotropy
                  • Vertical Transverse Isotropy (VTI)
                  • VTI Affects Seismic to Well Ties
                  • Parameterizing VTI Anisotropy
                  • 4th Order Moveout
                  • Gathers after Detailed Velocity Analysis
                  • Optimising the Acquisition & Processing of 3D Seismic Data Maximising Vertical & Horizontal Resolution
                  • Vertical Resolution - Reminder
                  • Wedge Model Seismic Response
                  • Time-Amplitude Analysis of a Wedge Model
                  • Vertical Resolution - Summary
                  • Maximizing Vertical Resolution in Acquisition
                  • Vertical Resolution - Example (‘HFI’ Processing from Geotrace)
                  • Spectra
                  • DM0/Post-Stack Migration
                  • DM0/Post-Stack Migration with HFI
                  • Horizontal Resolution
                  • Seismic Energy Reflects from a Patch, not a Point
                  • Un migrated Data and Diffractions
                  • Migration Collapses Diffractions
                  • Aperture and Horizontal Resolution
                  • Migration Collapses Diffractions, Improves Resolution
                  • Maximizing Horizontal Resolution
                  • Reminder - 3D Acquisition Coverage
                  • Video: Processing of Reflection Data
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Basic Processing

                  Contents:
                    • Seismic Data Processing
                    • Introduction and Theoretical Background
                    • Seismic Reflection & Refraction Basics
                    • Seismic Waves
                    • Ray Paths
                    • Multiple Reflections
                    • Ghost Reflections
                    • Attenuation of Seismic Waves
                    • Seismic Velocities
                    • Reflection Coefficient
                    • Frequency Concepts
                    • Filters in the Frequency Domain
                    • Frequency Aliasing
                    • Seismic Resolution
                    • Video: Basic Geophysics- Reflection & Refraction
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Seismic Data Processing I – Demultiplexing, Scaling, Editing & Muting

                    Contents:
                      • Introduction
                      • Generalized Processing Flow
                      • Demultiplexing
                      • Gain Recovery
                      • Equalization and AGC
                      • Equalization
                      • Automatic Gain Control (AGC)
                      • Equalization
                      • Trace Editing
                      • Polarity
                      • Resampling
                      • Trace Muting
                      • Trace Muting (Front End)
                      • Trace Muting (Surgical)
                      • Seismic Data Processing II Static Corrections
                      • Introduction
                      • Topographic Variations
                      • Initial Fractions
                      • Weathered Layer
                      • Near Surface Irregularities
                      • Computation of Datum Static Corrections
                      • Marine Datum Static Correction
                      • Uphole Recording
                      • Uphole Recording (Survey)
                      • Refraction Surveys
                      • First Breaks
                      • Tomography
                      • Residual Statics
                      • Replacement Statics
                      • Tidal Statics
                      • Video: Seismic Tomography
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Seismic Data Processing III – Deconvolution

                      Contents:
                        • Signature Deconvolution
                        • Frequency Domain Signature Deconvolution
                        • Time Domain Signature Deconvolution
                        • Vibroseis Correlation
                        • Signature Deconvolution Example
                        • FX Deconvolution
                        • Statistical Deconvolution
                        • Deconvolution Parameters
                        • Deconvolution Examples
                        • Seismic Data Processing IV - Filtering
                        • F/K Filtering
                        • Linear Tau-P Filtering
                        • Frequency Filtering
                        • Filtering
                        • Seismic Data Processing V - Sorting, Gathering,& Dynamic Corrections
                        • Sorting & Gathering
                        • Common Offset
                        • Common Shot
                        • Dynamic Correction
                        • Picking Velocity
                        • Non Hyperbolic Moveout
                        • NMO Stretching
                        • Velocity Quality Control
                        • Dip Moveout (DMO)
                        • Seismic Data Processing VI – Noises & Multiples Attenuation
                        • Type of Noises
                        • Multiple Attenuation
                        • Velocity Discrimination
                        • F/K Multiple Attenuation
                        • T-P Multiple Attenuation (T-P Deconvolution)
                        • T-P Multiple Attenuation
                        • RADON Multiple Attenuation
                        • General Overview of Multiple Suppression Methods
                        • Multiple Attenuation Example
                        • Video: Processing III - Deconvolution
                        • Module Quiz
                      • Module 8 - Seismic Data Processing VII – Stacking & Migration and Depth Conversion

                        Contents:
                          • CMP Stacking
                          • Migration and Depth Conversion
                          • Seismic Data Migration
                          • Migration Effects and Techniques
                          • Time Migration
                          • Depth Migration
                          • Migration Stage
                          • F-K Migration
                          • Phase Shift Migration
                          • Finite-Difference Migration
                          • Kirchhoff Migration
                          • Wave Equation Migration
                          • Migration Aperture
                          • Video: Processing IV- Migration
                          • Module Quiz
                        • Post-Test

                          Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.