Topic outline

  • Vertical Seismic Profiles

    This course provides an overview of all significant aspects and considerations of vertical seismic profile (VSP) for applied geoscientists, operations geologists and geophysicists who need an understanding of the data acquisition, principles, multiple uses and applications of borehole seismic data, including microseismic and the new fiber optics distributed seismic acquisition systems. The course is also beneficial for team leaders, supervisors, managers and those who are responsible for leading a team and interested in establishing and/or being a part of a highly productive team
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on vertical seismic profiles Recognize the seismic exploration categories and seismic signals in the borehole
      Discuss zero offset VSP basics including borehole multiples and VSP data processing flow Identify the different types of VSPs and Horizontal VSPs as well as tube wave energy and tube waves
      Compare surface seismic, borehole environment, resonance types and its effects Explain resonance attenuation, shaker response, borehole survey types, borehole seismic history, geometry of surveys and checkshot surveys
      Describe the vertical incident VSP, offset VSP, imaging walkaway, AVO walkaway, salt proximity survey and 3D VSP Determine borehole seismic on wireline and acquire pipe conveyed as well as through drill seismic (TDS), logging while drilling and through tubing seismic
      Explain simultaneous acquisition, borehole seismic application, the VSP concept and acquisition practices Identify the VSP survey fundamentals, VSP measurement procedure and the common applications of VSP data in exploration and development
      Record VSP data, review VSP survey recording geometries, offset, walkaway, and zero-offset geometries Recognize inverse VSP, drill-bit source inverse VSP, the VSP receiver, geophones, transducer geometry and accelerometers
      Describe desirable amplitude/phase behavior, distortion-free triaxial seismic data and CSI sensor module Identify the general requirements of VSP receivers, locking force, depth correlator and geophone-to-formation coupling measurement
      Illustrate three-point support, downhole digitizer and telemetry system, gimbal-mounted geophones, temperature and tilt angle calibration of geophones and multi-level receiver arrays
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of vertical seismic profiles. It covers the seismic exploration categories and seismic signals in the borehole; the zero offset VSP basics, borehole multiples and VSP data processing flow; the different types of VSPs and Horizontal VSPs; the tube wave energy; the comparison of surface seismic, borehole environment, resonance types and its effects; the resonance attenuation and shaker response; the borehole survey types, borehole seismic history, geometry of surveys and checkshot surveys; and the vertical incident VSP, offset VSP, imaging walkaway, AVO walkaway, salt proximity survey and 3D VSP
        During this course, participants will learn the borehole seismic on wireline, pipe conveyed acquisition, through drill seismic (TDS), logging while drilling and through tubing seismic; the simultaneous acquisition and borehole seismic application; the VSP concept and acquisition practices; the VSP survey fundamentals, VSP measurement procedure and the common applications of VSP data in exploration and development; the recording of VSP data, VSP survey recording geometries, offset, walkaway, and zero-offset geometries; and the inverse VSP, drill-bit source inverse VSP, VSP receiver, geophones, transducer geometry and accelerometers
        • Module 1 - Preface to Borehole Seismic

          Contents:
            • What is a VSP?
            • Seismic Signals in the Borehole
            • Seismic Signals in the Borehole
            • Zero Offset VSP - The Basics
            • Seismic Signal in the Borehole
            • Vertical Seismic Profile
            • One-Way Time vs. Two Way Time
            • Borehole Multiples
            • Different Types of VSPs
            • Horizontal VSPs
            • Tube Wave Energy
            • Tube Waves
            • Surface Seismic Comparison
            • Borehole Environment
            • Resonance types & effects
            • Resonance Attenuation
            • Shaker Response
            • Borehole Survey Types
            • Borehole Seismic History
            • Geometry of Surveys
            • Checkshot Surveys
            • Zero Offset VSP
            • Vertical Incident VSP
            • Offset VSP
            • Imaging Walkaway
            • AVO Walkaway
            • Salt Proximity Survey
            • 3D VSP
            • Borehole Seismic Deployment
            • Borehole Seismic on Wireline
            • Pipe Conveyed Acquisition
            • Through Drill Seismic TDS
            • Logging While Drilling
            • Through Tubing Seismic
            • Simultaneous Acquisition
            • Video: Borehole Seismics
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Borehole Seismic Application - VSP

            Contents:
              • What is a VSP?
              • Video: VSP - Vertical Seismic Profile
              • The VSP Concept
              • Acquisition Practices
              • Why go to such trouble? What benefits Can The Explorationists achieve by Using this Technique?
              • There Are Several Specific Exploration Objectives for Running a VSP:
              • VSP Survey Fundamentals
              • The VSP Measurement Procedure
              • However, The Objectives of Vertical Seismic Profiling Differ From Those of Velocity Surveying in the Following Ways:
              • When VSP Should Be Considered
              • Common Applications of VSP Data in Exploration and Development
              • VSP Survey Recording Geometries
              • Offset, Walkaway, and Zero-Offset Geometies
              • Inverse VSP
              • Drill-bit Source Inverse VSP
              • The VSP Receiver
              • Introduction
              • Geophones
              • Transducer Geometry
              • Accelerometers
              • Desirable Amplitude/Phase Behavior
              • Distortion-Free Triaxial Seismic Data
              • CSI Sensor Module
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - General Requirements Of VSP Receivers

              Contents:
                • Locking Force
                • Depth Correlator
                • Geophone-to-Formation Coupling Measurement
                • Three-Point Support
                • Downhole Digitizer and Telemetry System
                • Gimbal-Mounted Geophones
                • Temperature and Tilt Angle Calibration of Geophones
                • Multi-Level Receiver Arrays
                • The VSP Source
                • General Requirements of VSP Sources
                • Reliability
                • Repeatability
                • Monitor Geophones
                • Penetration
                • Portability
                • Bandwidth
                • Cycle Time
                • Noise Generation
                • Environmental Considerations
                • Radiation Pattern
                • Safety
                • Land-Based VSP Source Mechanisms
                • Dynamite
                • Vibrators
                • Listening Time
                • Bolt Land Airgun and Weight Droppers
                • Onshore Airguns
                • Shear-Wave Sources
                • Explosive S-wave Sources
                • Mechanical S-wave Sources
                • Video: Shear Wave Splitting
                • Offshore Energy Sources
                • Deployment of Remote Marine Arrays
                • Performance of Airgun Arrays
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - VSP Recording System

                Contents:
                  • Gain Requirements
                  • Analog-to-Digital Converter
                  • Central Processor Unit
                  • Source Controller
                  • Operating With Remote Sources
                  • Integration of Remote Source and Downhole Data
                  • Pre - Survey Modeling
                  • The Importance of Pre-Survey Modeling
                  • Dipping Reflector Models
                  • VSP Acquisition Practices And Concerns
                  • Instrument Tests
                  • Geophone Tap Tests
                  • Digital Sampling Requirements
                  • Recording While Going Downhole
                  • Acquisition Concerns Unique To VSP
                  • Differential Pressure Sticking
                  • Tube Waves
                  • Combating Tube Waves
                  • Borehole Conditions
                  • Resonance in Multiple Casing Strings
                  • Geophone Positioning By Drillpipe and Coiled Tubing
                  • VSP Processing Fundamentals
                  • Basic Principles of VSP Processing
                  • Source Signature Deconvolution
                  • Amplitude Loss Compensation
                  • Wavefield Separation Techniques
                  • Median Filtering
                  • Removal of Downgoing Wave Modes By Estimation and Subtraction
                  • Video: Operating Principle of Seismometer
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Deconvolution of VSP Data

                  Contents:
                    • Processing Three-Component VSP Data
                    • Wave-Field Separation Methods for Three-Component Data
                    • Geometric Separation
                    • Parametric Inversion
                    • Other Types of Wave-field Separation Approaches
                    • Shear Wave Data Processing
                    • VSP Imaging
                    • VSPCDP Mapping
                    • Migration
                    • Summary of Imaging Approaches for VSP Data
                    • Comparison Between Forward and Inverse VSP Images
                    • Video:Deconvolution Of VSP Data
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Vertical Seismic Profiles Applications

                    Contents:
                      • VSPs Opportunities
                      • Zero Offset VSP - The Basics
                      • VSP Data - Processing Flow
                      • VSP vs Synthetic vs Section
                      • Different Types of VSPs
                      • 3D VSP - Shooting Around Platforms
                      • Horizontal VSPs
                      • Identification of Subtle Faults
                      • AVO VSP
                      • Ekofisk Gas Chimney
                      • VSPs While Drilling
                      • Cross Well Seismic/Tomography Applications
                      • Crosswell VSP
                      • Resolution Increases To A Few Feet
                      • Tomography
                      • Problems - Accuracy Expectations
                      • Tomographic - Model Results Not Unique
                      • Effect of Advancing Steam Front
                      • Carbonate Example - Better Porosity is Found Between Wells Than at Wells
                      • Interwell Reservoir Description
                    • Module 7 - Borehole Seismic Application - VSP

                      Contents:
                        • Data Acquisition
                        • Hardware
                        • Air Guns
                        • Water Guns
                        • The Downhole Sensor
                        • Hardware for Offset Shooting
                        • Data Quality
                        • Well Site Capabilities
                        • Log Phase
                        • Playback Phase (Seismic Quicklook)
                        • Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP)
                        • Multiple Identification and Prediction
                        • Primary Identification and Prediction
                        • Optimum Seismic Mapping Frequency
                        • Determination of Seismic Time Delay
                        • Predictions Ahead of the Bit
                        • Estimation of Formation DIP
                        • Offset Surveys
                        • Modelling Offset Shooting
                        • Seismic Inversion Using Iterative Modelling
                        • Video: Inversion Procedures in Geophysics
                        • Module Quiz
                      • Post-Test

                        Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.