Topic outline

  • Control Loops

    This course provides an overview of all significant aspects and considerations of control loops for engineers and other technical staff who are willing to learn more about single loop controllers, PID and tuning
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain a comprehensive knowledge on control loops Discuss process controller, control loop and valve tuning including control fundamental and process control terminology
      Explain control principle, basic control loop, advance control loop and feed forwarded control loop Recognize control algorithm, control system, valve types, control valve types and control valve selection
      Carryout selection guidelines, application comparisons, process control methods, reset action and trial-and-error tuning Apply Zigler-Nichols tuning methods, Zigler-Nichols reactive curve method and Ziegler & Nichols tuning reaction curve using point of inflection
      Illustrate the steps of open loop tuning, continuous cycling method, direct synthesis method, direct synthesis tuning calculations and advanced control techniques Employ cascade control, feedforward control, ratio control, adaptive control, selection of flow characteristic and valve engineering liquid and flashing sizing
      Identify recovery coefficient, physical constants of hydrocarbons and pressure-temperature ratings for standard class valves Perform fisher controls, shutoff methods, seat leakage classifications, valve selection process and advance valve sizing
      Apply control valve seat leakage classifications, cavitation and flashing, noise prediction and control and self (auto) tuning operation Identify the main components of self-tuning, practical limitations in tuning of a control loop and control valve actuators and accessories
      Illustrate field calibration checks of valves, actuator selection, principle of operation, direct action operation and reverse action operation
      • Course Description

        This E-learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of control loops. It covers the process controller, control loop and valve tuning including control fundamental and process control terminology; the control principle, basic control loop, advance control loop and feed forwarded control loop; the control algorithm, control system, valve types, control valve types and control valve selection; the selection guidelines, application comparisons, process control methods, reset action and trial-and-error tuning; and the Zigler-Nichols tuning methods, Zigler-Nichols reactive curve method and Ziegler & Nichols tuning reaction curve using point of inflection
        Further, the course will also discuss the steps of open loop tuning, continuous cycling method, direct synthesis method, direct synthesis tuning calculations and advanced control techniques; the cascade control, feedforward control, ratio control, adaptive control, selection of flow characteristic and valve engineering liquid and flashing sizing; the recovery coefficient, physical constants of hydrocarbons and pressure-temperature ratings for standard class valves; and the fisher controls, shutoff methods, seat leakage classifications, valve selection process and advance valve sizing
        During this course, participants will learn the control valve seat leakage classifications, cavitation and flashing, noise prediction and control and self (auto) tuning operation; the main components of self-tuning, practical limitations in tuning of a control loop and control valve actuators and accessories; and the field calibration checks of valves, actuator selection, principle of operation, direct action operation and reverse action operation
        • Module 1 - Process Control Terminology

          Contents:
            • Control Principle 
            • Basic Control Loop 
            • Advance Control Loop 
            • Feed Forwared Control loop
            • Advance Control Loop
            • Example of Ratio Control
            • Control Algorithm 
            • Control System 
            • Video: What is a Fieldbus System?
            • Look At How the Control Migrate 
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Valve Types

            Contents:
              • Control Valves
              • Control Valve Types
              • Globe Valves
              • Different Types of Global Value
              • Rotary Motion Control Valves
              • Control Valve End Connections
              • Valve Body Bonnets
              • Actuators
              • Video: Actuators - Explained 
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Control Valve Types

              Contents:
                • Rotary Valves 
                • Video: Basic Actuator Operation for Rotary Valves
                • Butterfly Valves
                • Eccentric Disk Valves
                • Eccentric Rotary Plug Valves
                • Ball Valves
                • Plug Valves
                • Linear Valves
                • Globe Valves
                • Cage Valves
                • Angle Body Valve
                • Y - Body Valve
                • Split Body
                • Double Ported Valve
                • Control Valve Selection
                • Price Comparison
                • How to Choose the Right Valve
                • Selection Guidelines
                • Control Valve Selection
                • Application Comparisons
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Process Control Methods

                Contents:
                  • Open-Loop Control
                  • Video: Open-Loop Control Systems
                  • Closed-Loop Control
                  • Process Behavior
                  • Process Behavior Example
                  • Single-Variable Control Loop
                  • Response Time of the Instrument
                  • Time Lag
                  • Selecting a Controller
                  • On-Off Control
                  • Continuous Control
                  • On-Off Control
                  • Amplitude Proportional
                  • Proportional Band
                  • Integral Control
                  • Reset Action
                  • Derivative Mode
                  • P&I&D Relation Ship
                  • Control Mode Summary
                  • Tuning the Controller
                  • Trial-and-Error Tuning
                  • Zigler-Nichols Tuning Methods
                  • Zigler-Nicoles Reactive Curve Method 
                  • Ziegler & Nichols Tuning  Reaction Curve using Point of Inflection (POI)
                  • Steps of Open Loop Tuning (Reaction Curve) Using POI
                  • Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Methods
                  • Continuous Cycling Method
                  • Direct Synthesis Method
                  • Direct Synthesis Tuning Calculations
                  • Advanced Control Techniques 
                  • Cascade Control
                  • Feedforward Control
                  • Ratio Control
                  • Adaptive Control
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Control Valve Flow Characteristics

                  Contents:
                    • Selection of Flow Characteristic
                    • Valve Engineering Liquid and Flashing Sizing
                    • Valve Engineering – Gas and Steam Sizing for Sliding Stem Valves
                    • Advance Valve Sizing
                    • Valve Sizing 
                    • Characterization of Cage-Guided Valve Bodies
                    • Valve Plug Guiding 
                    • Restricted-Capacity Control Valve Trim
                    • Control Valve Seat Leakage Classifications
                    • Video: Control Valves
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Cavitations & Flashing

                    Contents:
                      • Valve Selection for Flashing Service
                      • Video: What is Valve Cavitation?
                      • Noise Prediction
                      • Noise Control
                      • Noise Summary
                      • Noise Prediction (Conclusion)
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Different Tuning Rules Available

                      Contents:
                        • Tuning for NO Overshoot on Start-up
                        • Formula for NO Overshoot on Start-up
                        • Tuning for Some Overshoot on Start-up (Pessen)
                        • Short Cut Open Loop Method 
                        • Simplified Lambda Tuning 
                        • On-line Trial Tuning 
                        • Cohen Coon Tuning Rule 
                        • This from Zigler - Nicols Curve its here just for ↓RR Value
                        • Cohen Coon Tuning Rule 
                        • Controllability of Process 
                        • A Few General Suggestions 
                        • A Few Suggestions 
                        • Some Rules of Thumb 
                      • Module 8 - Fundamentals of Control Systems

                        Contents:
                          • Three Basic Functions 
                          • Terminology in Control 
                          • ON/OFF Control 
                          • Response of a Two Position Controller 
                          • Modulating Control 
                          • Cascade Control 
                          • Video: Introduction to Cascade Control
                          • Ratio Control 
                          • Open Loop and Closed Loop Control 
                          • Open Loop Control
                          • Simple Process Block
                          • Open Loop Example
                          • Feedforward Control
                          • Feedforward Block Diagram
                          • Feedforward Control Example
                          • Feed Heater Example - Analyse Components
                          • Closed Loop Control
                          • Closed Loop Block Diagram
                          • Disadvantage of Feedback Control 
                          • Modes of Feedback Control 
                          • Closed Loop PID has 3 Modes
                          • Basic Error Assessment
                          • Proportional Control
                          • Proportional Action (Closed Loop)
                          • Proportional Formulas
                          • Proportional Band 
                          • Ranges of Proportional Bands 
                          • Integral Action to Reduce Offset
                          • Phase Shift of Integration Action 
                          • Integral Relationships 
                          • Integral Action in Practice 
                          • Proportional and Integral Control (Closed Loop)
                          • Integral has a Phase Lag
                          • Integral Lag Needs Compensation
                          • Derivative Control
                          • Derivative Control Formula
                          • Derivative Relationships 
                          • Derivative Control has No Functionality 
                          • Derivative has a Phase Lead
                          • Combined PID Control
                          • Principles of PID Application
                          • Diagram of a Ideal PID Controller
                          • Reverse or Direct Acting Controllers 
                          • Direct and Reverse Controllers 
                          • Manual Feedback Control 
                          • Stability & Control Modes of Closed Loops
                          • Principle Of Closed Loop Control 
                          • Stability Criteria
                          • Mathematical Criteria for Stability
                          • Increasing Instability With a Phase Shift 
                          • Considerations for Critical Frequency
                          • Integral Action to Reduce Offset 
                          • Process Response Curve 
                          • Step Change of Input Value 
                          • Industrial Control in Practice 
                          • Feed Heater - PV, MV
                          • Objectives of Feed Heater Control
                          • Major Disturbances - Feed Heater
                          • Section Divider 
                          • Proportional Control Basics
                          • Proportional Band (PB) vs Gain (K)
                        • Module 9 - Auto Tuning and Self Tuning Controllers

                          Contents:
                            • Objectives
                            • The Need for Adaptive Control
                            • Gain Scheduling Controller
                            • Self (Auto) Tuning Operation
                          • Module 10 - Good Practice and Troubleshooting in Tuning

                            Contents:
                              • Objectives
                              • Control Objective
                              • Flow Control
                              • Pressure and Level Control
                              • Tight Control
                              • Average Control
                              • Intermediate Level Control
                              • Temperature Control
                              • Composition Control
                              • Cascade Control Tuning
                              • Troubleshooting and Diagnostics
                              • Practical Limitations in Tuning of a Control Loop
                            • Module 11 - Types of Actuators

                              Contents:
                                • Actuator Sizing
                                • Actuator Selection
                                • Control Valve Actuator Accessories
                                • Other Valve Accessories
                                • Video: What are Valve Positioners?
                                • Module Quiz
                              • Post-Test

                                Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.