Topic outline

  • A1186 Electrical System Basics and Diagrams

    This course provides a basic overview of electrical system and diagrams for those who are involved in electrical drawing activities including engineers, draftsmen, electrical technicians and other technical staff.

    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain a basic knowledge on electrical system and diagrams Discuss the fundamentals of electric systems and machinery principles
      Explain Ohm’s law and conversions including the relationships of the basic electrical quantities Describe electro-magnetic theory, magnetic flux, Faraday’s law of induction and Lenz’s law
      Illustrate transient effects, AC circuit components and circuits with multiple components Differentiate heat versus current in a resistor and discuss magnetic hysteresis, balance three-phase voltages and three phase circuit
      Identify rectifiers that include half wave and full wave rectifier as well as rectification Discuss transformers and its principle of operation, components and core characteristics
      Recognize schematic symbols for transformer, leakage flux, primary and secondary phase relationship, turns, voltage ratios and current ratios Carryout transformer tests, open-circuit test and short-circuit test as well as identify transformer losses and efficiency
      Recognize the types of transformers, other uses of a transformer and effects of current on the human body Describe cut view of transformer, transformer with conservator and breather
      Review apparent power rating of a transformer, inrush current and classification of transformer Classify the basis of cooling employed as well as determine transformer efficiency and losses
      Identify moisture content in cellulose insulation as well as employ water heat run test, transformer testing and voltage ratio test
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with an overview of electrical system basics and diagrams. It covers the fundamentals of electric systems and machinery principles; the Ohm’s law and conversions; the relationships of the basic electrical quantities; the electro-magnetic theory, magnetic flux, Faraday’s law of induction and Lenz’s law; the transient effects, AC circuit components and circuits with multiple components; the heat, current in a resistor and magnetic hysteresis; the balance three-phase voltages and three phase circuit; the wave and full wave rectifier and rectification; the action and principle of operation, components and core characteristics of transformers; the schematic symbols for transformer; leakage flux; and the primary and secondary phase relationship, turns, voltage ratios and current ratios
        During this course, participants will learn the transformer tests, open-circuit test, short-circuit test, transformer losses and efficiency; the types of transformers, other uses of a transformer and effects of current on the human body; the cut view of transformer, transformer with conservator and breather; the apparent power rating of a transformer, inrush current and classification of transformer; the basis of cooling employed and transformer efficiency and losses; and the moisture content in cellulose insulation, water heat run test, transformer testing and voltage ratio test
        • Module 1 - Fundamentals of Electric Systems: Introduction to Machinery Principles

          Contents:
            • Introduction
            • Atom
            • What are the Parts of an Atom?
            • The Atom
            • What is Electricity?
            • Static Electricity
            • Current (I, Amps)
            • Potential (V, Volts)
            • Resistance (R, Ohms)
            • Ohm’s Law
            • Ohm’s Law & Conversions
            • Capacitance (C, Farads)
            • Current Carrying Conductor Produces Magnetism
            • Magnetic Lines w.r.t. Current Flow Direction
            • Direction of Current in Windings Establish N & S Poles
            • Inductance (L, Henrys)
            • Frequency (f, Hertz)
            • Reactance (X, Ohms)
            • Impedance (Z, Ohms)
            • Active Power (P Watts)
            • Reactive Power (Q, Vars)
            • Apparent Power (Α, Volt-Amps, VA)
            • Power Factor (PF) - Real Power/Apparent Power
            • Relationships of the Basic Electrical Quantities
            • Video: Electrical System Basics
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Electro-Magnetic Theory

            Contents:
              • Introduction to Electromagnetics
              • Video: Electromagnetism 
              • Induction Experimental
              • Magnetic Flux
              • Faraday’s Law of Induction
              • Generator
              • Lenz’s Law: Against the change
              • Lenz’s Law: Example
              • Flux Density (B) & Flux
              • Summary: Electromagnetic Induction & Faraday’s Law
              • Faraday’s Law
              • Extra Facts 1: Fleming’s Right Hand Rule
              • Extra Fact 2 – Non-Perpendicular B-Fields
              • Extra Facts 3 - Coils
              • What Does It All Mean?
              • Transient Effects
              • Phasors
              • AC Circuit Components
              • Circuits with Multiple Components
              • Heat vs. Current in a Resistor
              • Magnetic Hysteresis
              • Balance Three-Phase Voltages
              • Three Phase Circuit
              • Balance Three-Phase Voltages
              • Eddy Current
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Rectifiers and Rectification

              Contents:
                • Half Wave Rectifier
                • Video: What Is a Half-Wave Rectifier?
                • Full Wave Rectifier
              • Module 4 - Transformers

                Contents:
                  • Introduction
                  • Definition and Principle
                  • Transformers
                  • Transformers Action
                  • Video: How Does A Transformer Work?
                  • Principle of Operation
                  • Components of a Transformer
                  • Core Characteristics
                  • Laminated Cores
                  • Hollow Core Transformers
                  • Shell Core Transformers
                  • Transformer Windings
                  • Schematic Symbols for Transformer
                  • How A Transformer Works
                  • Exciting Current
                  • Effect of a Load
                  • Coefficient of Coupling
                  • Leakage Flux
                  • Primary and Secondary Phase Relationship
                  • Turns and Voltage Ratios
                  • Turns and Current Ratios
                  • Power Relationship between Primary and Secondary Windings
                  • Ideal Transformers
                  • Transformer Tests
                  • Open-circuit Test
                  • Short-circuit Test
                  • Transformer Losses
                  • Transformer Efficiency
                  • All Day Efficiency
                  • Transformer Ratings
                  • Types of Transformers
                  • Other Uses of a Transformer
                  • Effects of Current on the Human Body
                  • Cut View of Transformer
                  • Transformer with Conservator and Breather
                  • Apparent Power Rating of a Transformer
                  • Inrush Current
                  • Three Phase System
                  • 3 Phase Transformer Connections
                  • Star-Star Connection
                  • Delta-Delta Connection
                  • Star-Delta Connection
                  • Delta-Star Connection
                  • Classification of Transformer
                  • Classification on the Basis of Cooling Employed
                  • Transformer Efficiency
                  • Transformer Losses
                  • Eddy Currents
                  • Hysteresis Loss
                  • Types of Transformers
                  • Rating/Specifications
                  • Vector Group
                  • Cooling Arrangement
                  • Components of a Transformer
                  • Oil Filled Transformer
                  • Dry Type Transformer
                  • Core
                  • Oil
                  • Insulation
                  • Bushing
                  • OTI
                  • WTI
                  • Buchholz Relay
                  • Overloading Capacity
                  • DGA- Key Gases
                  • DGA
                  • DGA (Rogers Ratio Method)
                  • DGA (IEC 60599)
                  • Moisture Content in Cellulose Insulation
                  • Water Heat Run Test
                  • Relative saturation (RS) of water in oil
                  • Transformer Testing
                  • Voltage Ratio Test
                  • 1Φ Excitation Current at 415V
                  • Polarity Check
                  • Winding Resistance
                  • IR of Winding & Core
                  • Capacitance & Tan Delta of Winding & Bushing
                  • Diagnostic Testing
                  • SFRA
                  • DP Index
                  • Current Transformers & Potential Transformers CT and PT
                  • Oil Type Transformer
                  • Indicative Drawing
                  • Dry Type Transformers
                  • Transformers IR
                  • Insulation Resistance Test Voltages Versus Machine Rated Voltages
                  • Dry Type Transformers
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Introduction to Electrical Machines

                  Contents:
                    • Electric Motors and Generators
                    • Introduction
                    • A Simple AC Generator
                    • Use of a Commutator
                    • A Simple Generator with Two Coils
                    • DC Generators or Dynamos
                    • A Four-Pole DC Generator
                    • Field Coil Excitation
                    • DC Generator Characteristics
                    • AC Generators or Alternators
                    • A Four-Pole Alternator
                    • Example
                    • DC Motors
                    • DC Motor Characteristics
                    • AC Motors
                    • A Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor
                    • Universal Motors
                    • Electrical Machines – A Summary
                    • Key Points
                    • Meters Must have for Troubleshooting
                    • Video: Motors and Generators
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Induction Motors

                    Contents:
                      • Motors vs. Engines
                      • AC Motors
                      • Motors
                      • Magnetic Induction
                      • Basic Principles of Rotating Machines
                      • Motor Parts
                      • Enclosure
                      • Stator (Windings)
                      • Rotor
                      • Wound Rotor Motors (Slip Ring Induction Motors)
                      • Wound Rotor Motors
                      • Bearings
                      • Other Parts
                      • Motor Speed
                      • Synchronous Speed
                      • Rated Speed
                      • Motor Slip
                      • Torque
                      • Torque-Speed Curve
                      • Motor Power
                      • Calculating Horsepower
                      • Electrical = Input
                      • Example:1
                      • Example:2
                      • Nameplate - Examples
                      • Classification of Motors
                      • Synchronous vs. Induction Motors
                      • Single Phase Induction Motors
                      • Split Phase Motor
                      • Capacitor Run Motor (Permanent Split Capacitor or PSC)
                      • Capacitor Start Motor
                      • Capacitor Start-Capacitor Run
                      • Universal Motor
                      • Video: Induction Motors - Construction & Working - 3 Phase Motors - Single Phase Motors
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Construction & Speed Control of Induction Motors

                      Contents:
                        • Induction Motors
                        • Introduction
                        • Construction
                        • Rotating Magnetic Field
                        • Video: Rotating Magnetic Field
                        • Synchronous Speed
                        • Rotating Magnetic Field
                        • Principle of Operation
                        • Induction Motor Speed
                        • The Slip
                        • Frequency
                        • Torque
                        • Horse Power
                        • Example
                        • Solution
                        • Equivalent Circuit of an Induction Motor
                        • Power Relations
                        • Example
                        • Solution
                        • Rating of AC Induction Motors
                        • Cooling and Ventilation of Electric Motors (IC)
                        • Degree of Protection of Motor Enclosures (IP)
                        • Construction and Mounting of AC Induction Motors
                        • AC Motor Starting Methods
                      • Module 8 - Synchronous Machines Synchronous Generators

                        Contents:
                          • Synchronous Machines
                          • Basic AC Power Flow
                          • Losses
                          • Power Factor
                          • Basic Expressions
                          • Power Factor
                          • Synchronous Generators
                          • Construction of Synchronous Machines
                          • Prime Movers (Mechanical Energy)
                          • Equivalent Circuit of a Synchronous Generator
                          • Power and Torque in Synchronous Generators
                          • Phasor Diagram of a Synchronous Generator
                          • The Synchronous Generator Operating Alone
                          • Terminal Characteristics of Synchronous Generators
                          • Parallel Operation of Synchronous Generators
                          • Conditions Required for Paralleling
                          • General Procedure for Paralleling Generators
                          • Operation of Generators in Parallel with Large Power Systems
                          • Video: Synchronous Generator Synchronization
                          • Module Quiz
                        • Module 9 - Motor Protection, Insulation & Troubleshooting

                          Contents:
                            • Motor Preliminary Standards
                            • Causes of Motor Failures
                            • Why Motors Fail?
                            • Protection of Low Voltage Motors
                            • Overload Protection
                            • Overload / Short Circuit Protection
                            • Short Circuit Protection
                            • Motor Protection
                            • Motor Protection Coordination
                            • Medium Voltage Motor Protection
                            • Electrical Faults in Stator Windings
                            • Motor Differential Protection
                            • Overload and Locked Rotor (Stalling) Motor Protection
                            • Operation of a Thermal Over Current Relay During Lock Rotor Condition
                            • Unbalanced Phases
                            • Single Phasing Cause
                            • Loss of Phase or Single Phasing
                            • Under and Overvoltage Protection
                            • Effect of Voltage Variation
                            • Undervoltage Cause
                            • Under Voltage Effect
                            • Over Voltage Cause
                            • Under and Overvoltage Protection
                            • Motor Winding Temperature
                            • Under and Overvoltage Protection
                            • Siemens Motor Protection Relays
                            • SIPROTEC Motor Protection
                            • Motor Protection Function provided by SIPROTEC
                            • Motor Protection of Small Motor 100-500kw
                            • Motor Protection of Small Motor 500kw (1-2MW)
                            • Motor Protection of Small Motor (>2MW)
                            • Insulation and Troubleshooting
                            • What Makes Insulation to Deteriorate?
                            • How Insulation Resistance is Measured
                            • Insulation and Testing
                            • How to Interpret Resistance Readings
                            • Types of Insulation Resistance Tests
                            • Test Voltage vs. Equipment Rating
                            • Use of DC Dielectric Test Set
                            • 11kV XLPE Aluminium Single Core 500mm² with Voids
                            • Insulation Resistance to Ground
                            • Polarization Index PI
                            • Video: Common Electric Motor Failure Types and Causes
                            • Module Quiz
                          • Module 10 - Generator Protection

                            Contents:
                              • Stator Ground Fault Protection
                              • Differential Protection
                              • Phase Unbalance or Negative Phase Sequence Protection
                              • Interturn Protection
                              • Under-frequency and Over-frequency Protection
                              • Out-of-Step Protection
                              • Loss of Excitation Protection
                              • Overexcitation Protection
                              • Reverse Power Protection
                              • Phase Back-up Protection
                              • Generator Overcurrent Protection Voltage Controlled & Voltage Restrained
                              • Generator Short-Circuit Current
                              • Module Quiz
                            • Post-Test

                              Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.