Topic outline

  • PS-EIA-PDT-101 Power and Distribution Transformers

    This course provides an overview of all significant aspects and considerations of power and distribution transformer for electrical power managers, engineers, superintendents, supervisors, foremen and those who are involved in the design, engineering, operation, maintenance and control of the electric power system or those who are interested in obtaining a working knowledge of the modern electric power system.

    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on power and distribution transformers Recognize magnetic field, magnets, names of poles and various shapes of magnets
      Discuss, magnetic force, attraction, repulsion, magnetic and electric fields, electric charges and magnetism difference and electromagnetism Make an electromagnet and explain how electromagnetism works
      Describe wire in a coil, iron core, AC electricity, strength of electromagnetic field, unit, current, turns of coil, distance and effect of iron core Recognize electromagnetic induction and self and mutual inductance
      Determine direction of current including the three-phase system, star connection, vector diagram, delta connection, Y-connected load, -connected load and Y- equivalence Describe power in three-phase circuits, three wire system and three-phase bases as well as carryout three-phase power measurement
      Explain transformer theory, purpose and scope as well as identify the types of transformers, transformer applications, magnetic circuit, core material, winding, current and voltage ratios Discuss the laws of transformer, principle of operation of a transformer, reflected impedance and transformer equivalent circuit
      Carryout transformer construction, core configurations, three-phase transformer cores assembly and corner jointing of limbs with yokes Describe core and shell form construction, transformer windings, power transformer cooling and sealing systems
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of power and distribution transformers. It covers the magnetic field, magnets, names of poles and various shapes of magnets; the magnetic force, attraction, repulsion, magnetic and electric fields; the electric charges, magnetism difference and electromagnetism; the making of an electromagnet; the wire in a coil, iron core, AC electricity, strength of electromagnetic field, unit, current, turns of coil, distance and effect of iron core; the electromagnetic induction and self and mutual inductance; and the direction of current and the three-phase system, star connection, vector diagram, delta connection, Y-connected load, D-connected load and Y-D equivalence
        During this course, participants will learn the power in three-phase circuits, three wire system, three-phase bases and three-phase power measurement; the transformer theory, purpose and scope; the types of transformers, transformer applications, magnetic circuit, core material, winding, current and voltage ratios; the laws of transformer, principle of operation of a transformer, reflected impedance and transformer equivalent circuit; the transformer construction, core configurations, three-phase transformer cores assembly and corner jointing of limbs with yokes; and the core and shell form construction, transformer windings, power transformer cooling and sealing systems
        • Module 1 - Introduction & Basics

          Contents:
            • Three Phase Circuit
            • Power in Three-phase Circuits
            • Three Phase Power Measurement
            • Videos: Four Wire Delta Seperation
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Per Unit Values

            Contents:
              • Introduction and Basics
              • Defining Bases
              • Three Phase Bases
              • Transformers in Per Unit Calculations 
            • Module 3 - Transformer Theory

              Contents:
                • Video: Basic Transformer Differential Theory
                • Magnetic and Electric Circuits of a Transformer
                • Winding, Current and Voltage Ratios
                • Laws of Transformer
                • Principle of Operation of a Transformer
                • Reflected Impedance
                • Transformer Equivalent Circuit
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Transformer Construction

                Contents:
                  • Introduction
                  • Core Material
                  • Core Configurations
                  • Core Sheets
                  • Core Cross Sectional Area
                  • Core Assembly
                  • Three-Phase Transformer Cores Assembly
                  • Single-Phase Transformer Cores
                  • Corner Jointing of Limbs with Yokes
                  • Oil Ducts
                  • Core form Construction
                  • Shell form Construction
                  • Transformer Windings
                  • Video: Transformer windings protection against moisture
                  • Module Quiz
                • Module 5 - Power Transformer Cooling

                  Contents:
                    • 1. Introduction
                    • 2. Cooling Arrangement
                    • 3. ONAN Type Cooling (Oil to Air - OA)
                    • 4. ONAF Type Cooling (Oil to Air OA/ Forced Air FA)
                    • 5. OFAF Type Cooling (Forced Oil AIR FOA)
                    • 6. OFWF Type Cooling
                    • 7. Forced Directed Oil Cooling
                    • 8. Gas Insulated Transformer (GIS)
                    • 8.1 Advantages of Gas Insulated Transformers
                    • 8.2 Layout Example of a Gas Insulated Substation
                    • 9. Comparison
                    • 10.Temperature Gauges
                    • Transformer Oil Temperature Gauge
                    • Winding Temperature Gauge
                    • 11. Oil Level Gauge
                    • 12. Thermal Time Constant of Power Transformer
                    • Video: Transformer Cooling System
                    • Module Quiz
                  • Module 6 - Transformer Performance and OLTC & ALTC Tap Changers

                    Contents:
                      • Nameplate Data
                      • Transformer Parameters
                      • Determining the Circuit Parameters from Tests
                      • Percentage Impedance
                      • Calculations of % Regulation Using % Impedance
                      • Three Phase Transformer
                      • Y-Y Connection of Transformers
                      • Terminal Marking
                      • Vector Group
                      • Scott Connection
                      • Auto-Transformer
                      • Vector Group
                      • Transformer Tap Changer
                      • Types of Tap Changers
                      • Connections of Tapping Windings
                      • Location of On-Load Tap Changer
                      • Diverter Switch Contact Life
                      • Automatic Control of Tap Changers
                      • What is Line Drop Compensation (LCD)?
                      • Video: How On Load Tap Changer Works
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Transformer Power Factor pf and Harmonics

                      Contents:
                        • 1. Introduction
                        • 2. Causes of Low Power Factors
                        • 3. Known Loads Power Factors
                        • 4. Annual Power Factor Penalty
                        • 5. Unfavorable Effects of Low Power Factor loads
                        • 6. Capacitor Price Simple Payback
                        • 7. Power Factor Improvement
                        • 8. Power Factor Improvement for Power Transformer
                        • 9. Transformer Reactance
                        • 10. Capacitor Sizes Required to Compensate the No-load Reactive Power of Transformers
                        • 11. Voltage Rise
                        • 12. Harmonics
                        • 13. Waveform
                        • Video: Why Power Factor a Transformer
                      • Module 8 - Transformer Protection

                        Contents:
                          • 1. Transformer Faults
                          • Video: Transformer Faults
                          • Protection Against External Faults
                          • 2. Differential Relays
                          • 3. Biased Differential Relays
                          • 4. Restricted Earth Fault Protection
                          • 5. Over Current Protection
                          • 6. Overload Protection
                          • 7. Gas Operated (Buchholz) Relay
                          • Construction
                          • Operation
                          • Sudden Pressure Relay
                          • The Internal Fault Detector (IFD)
                          • Explosion Vents
                          • Temperature Indicatore
                          • Tank Earth Protection
                          • Module Quiz
                        • Module 9 - Transformer Oil Testing

                          Contents:
                            • Definitions
                            • Loss Tangent/Dielectric Dissipation Factor (DDF)
                            • Functions of Transformer Oil
                            • Transformer Oil Properties
                            • Transformer Oil Standards
                            • Hydrocarbon Compounds in Transformer Oil
                            • Moisture Problems
                            • Where Does The Water Come From?
                            • Moisture in Transformer Insulation
                            • Cellulose Degradation
                            • Relative Water Content Test 
                            • Physical & Chemical Tests (Polar Characteristics of Oil)
                            • Dielectric Losses Angle & Resistivity Test (Power Factor Test)
                            • Transformer Dissolved Gas-in-oil Analysis (DGA)
                            • Ratio Methods for Dissolved Gas in Oil Result Interpretation
                            • Overview of IEC Ratio Method
                            • Threshold Values
                            • Troubleshooting Chart
                            • Oil Color Test
                            • Insulating Oil Sampling Procedure
                            • Location of Oil Sampling
                            • Cases for Oil Sampling
                            • Oil Purification and Dehydration
                            • Oil Aging
                            • Preventive Maintenance Procedures for Transformer Oil
                            • Video: What is Transformer Oil Testing
                            • Module Quiz
                          • Module 10 - Transformer Testing

                            Contents:
                              • Test Data
                              • Abnormal Operating Conditions of Power Transformer
                              • Reasons for Transformer Testing
                              • Transformer Performance Assurance
                              • Classification of Transformer Tests
                              • Transformer Routine Tests
                              • Transformer Type Tests
                              • Special Tests
                              • Winding Resistance Test
                              • DC Voltampere Method
                              • Bridge Method
                              • Application
                              • Polarity Test
                              • Ratiometer Test
                              • No-Load Losses Test
                              • Test Requirements
                              • Measurement of No-Load Losses
                              • Measurement of Excitation Current
                              • Measuring Circuitry for Three Phase Transformers
                              • Load Losses Test
                              • Percent Impedance Voltage Measurement
                              • Leackage Reactance Measurement
                              • Efficiency Test
                              • Winding Insulation Resistance Test
                              • Winding Insulation Capacitance & Dissipation Factor (TAN) Test
                              • Oil Pressure Test
                              • Temperature Rise Test
                              • Transformer Arrival: Handling, Inspection And Pre-Commissioning
                              • Video: Transformer Testing
                              • Module Quiz
                            • Module 11 - Transformer Diagnostics, and Monitoring

                              Contents:
                                • Safety
                                • Fire Safety
                                • Visual Inspection
                                • Transformer Diagnostics
                                • Infrared
                                • IR for Transformer Tanks
                                • IR Transformer Cabinet Terminal Block Connections
                                • DOBLE Tests on Insulation
                                • High Voltage Insulator Coating
                                • Ultrasonic & Sonic Fault Detection
                                • Core Insulation Resistance
                                • Transformer Operating History
                                • Transformer Monitoring
                                • Transformer Status Monitoring System
                                • Gas-in-Oil Monitoring Unit
                                • Moisture Monitoring Sensor
                                • LTC Operation Monitoring Sensor
                                • Transformer Maintenance Management
                                • Maintenance Activities
                                • Transformer Maintenance Categories
                                • Transformer Maintenance Schedules
                                • Video: Transformer Monitoring
                                • Module Quiz
                              • Post-Test

                                Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.