Topic outline

  • Hydrates

    This course provides an overview of all significant aspects and considerations of hydrates for those seeking a complete and detailed overview of the various operations that take place in the oil and gas fields. This includes managers, engineers, supervisors and other technical staff. Further, the course is very useful for new recruits and for those who just started to handle responsibilities related to oil and gas operations
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain an in-depth knowledge on hydrates Explain why it is necessary to process raw natural gas and determine pounds of air pollutants produced per billion Btu of energy
      Identify the environmental advantages of natural gas and the natural gas in the world Discuss the distribution of natural gas from well head through consumption
      Recognize natural gas composition and the composition of natural gas resources of the lower-48 United States Classify natural gas and employ natural gas processing as well as identify generic raw gas and product slate, natural gas components, product specifications, pipeline quality gas and trace components
      Describe combustion characteristics, heating value, Wobbe number, API gravity, Brent crude oil specification and purification Discuss the nature of hydrates and predict hydrate formation using gas gravity (relative density)
      Illustrate hydrate inhibition, dehydration by absorption and mercury removal including gas processing and treatment Explain the purpose of de-hydration unit and review de-hydration schematic
      Illustrate the design of gas handling system and facilities Identify hydrate and water content including water content of gas and high CO2/H2S gases
      Determine hydrates in natural gas systems and predict sweet natural gas hydrate conditions Describe glycol dehydration systems and identify the freezing points of aqueous glycol
      Carryout hydrocarbon recovery, low temperature separation, propane refrigeration Apply refrigeration process alternatives, expansion process, refrigerated J-T process and straight refrigeration process
      Discuss non-associated gas phase envelope, turbo expanders, thermodynamics and solids formation
      • Course Description

        This E-learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of hydrates. It covers the environmental advantages of natural gas; the distribution of natural gas from well head through consumption; the natural gas composition and resources; the natural gas processing, generic raw gas and product slate, natural gas components, product specifications, pipeline quality gas and trace components; the combustion characteristics, heating value, Wobbe number, API gravity, Brent crude oil specification and purification; the nature of hydrates and prediction of hydrate formation using gas gravity (relative density); and the hydrate inhibition, dehydration by absorption, dehydration by adsorption, mercury removal, gas processing and treatment
        During this course, participants will learn the purpose of de-hydration unit and de-hydration schematic; the design of gas handling system and facilities; the hydrate and water content of gas and high CO2/H2S gases; the hydrates in natural gas systems and prediction of sweet natural gas hydrate conditions; the glycol dehydration systems and the freezing points of aqueous glycol; the hydrocarbon recovery, low temperature separation and propane refrigeration; the refrigeration process alternatives, expansion process, refrigerated J-T process and straight refrigeration process; and the non-associated gas phase envelope, turbo expanders, thermodynamics and solids formation
        • Module 1 - Natural GAS Processing

          Contents:
            • Why It Is Necessary To Process Raw Natural Gas? 
            • Pounds of Air Pollutants Produced Per Billion Btu of Energy
            • Environmental Advantages of Natural GAS
            • The World Picture for Natural Gas
            • Major Natural Gas Reserves by Country
            • World Natural Gas Production
            • Natural Gas in the World
            • Natural Gas in the United States - Data for 2000
            • Origin
            • Composition
            • Natural GAS Composition
            • Composition of Natural Gas Resources of The Lower-48 United States
            • Natural GAS Processing and Principal Products
            • Natural GAS Components
            • Product Specifications
            • Pipeline Quality Gas
            • Combustion Characteristics
            • Video: Processing Natural Gas
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - API Gravity

            Contents:
              • Brent Crude Oil Specification 
              • Video: Introduction of API Gravity
            • Module 3 - Purification

              Contents:
                • Introduction
                • Inlet Liquid Handling Facilities
                • Dehydration
                • Hydrates
                • The Nature of Hydrates
                • Hydrate Inhibition
                • Video: Hydrates
                • Dehydration by Absorption
                • Glycol Absorption Unit
                • Dehydration By Adsorption
                • The Best General Description Of Adsorption Is
                • How The Molecules Reach The Interior Of The Adsorbent?
                • Adsorption Disadvantages
                • Properties of Industrial Adsorbents
                • Important Properties of a Silica Gel And Molecular Sieve
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Dehydration and Mercury Removal

                Contents:
                  • The Purpose of the De-Hydration Unit
                  • Video: Gas Dehydration System: Glycol Regeneration (TEG) [Glycol Pump, Reboiler, Contact Tower, BTEX]
                  • Process Introduction
                  • Process Description
                  • De-hydration Schematic
                • Module 5 - Gas-Handling Facilities

                  Contents:
                    • Natural Gas Components
                    • Design of Gas-Handling Systems and Facilities
                    • Natural Gas Components
                    • GAS Impurities
                  • Module 6 - Gas Processing & Treatment

                    Contents:
                      • Water Content of Gas
                      • Water Content of High CO2/H2S Gases 
                      • Water Content
                      • Hydrates
                      • Hydrates in Natural Gas Systems 
                      • Prediction of Sweet Natural Gas Hydrate Conditions
                      • Example 20-3 
                      • Example 20-4
                      • Example 20-5
                      • Example 20-6
                      • Hydrate Inhibition 
                      • Example 20-8
                      • Solution Steps
                      • Gas Dehydration
                      • Glycol Dehydration Systems 
                      • Video: Glycol Gas Dehydration System
                      • Glycol Dehydration Case Study
                      • Example-9
                      • Solution Steps
                      • Example 20-10
                      • Other Considerations 
                      • Hydrocarbon Recovery
                      • Low Temperature Separation
                      • Valve (J-T Refrigeration)
                      • Propane Refrigeration
                      • Refrigeration 
                      • Refrigeration Compressor
                      • Hydrocarbon Recovery
                      • Short Cycle Units (HRU’s)
                      • Silica Gel
                      • Adsorption Efficiencies
                      • 2TOC
                      • 2TOC Recovery
                      • 2TCC Recovery
                      • 3TOC
                      • 3TOC Recovery
                      • 3TCC Recovery
                      • Modified 3TOC
                      • 3TOC w/ TGC
                      • 3TCC w/ TGC
                      • 3TOC w/ TGC Recovery
                      • Low Temperature Separation
                      • Valve (J-T Refrigeration)
                      • Propane Refrigeration
                      • Refrigeration
                      • Non-Associated Gas Phase Envelope
                      • Turbo Expanders 
                      • Thermodynamics
                      • Solids Formation
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - TEG Unit

                      Contents:
                        • Gas Dehydration & TEG Regeneration Units First Impression
                        • Glycol Units
                        • Reasons for Dehydrating Gas
                        • Choice of Glycol
                        • Gas Dehydration
                        • Problems Encountered
                        • Treatment
                        • K-437
                        • Gas Sweetening Units/Amine Units
                        • Amine Units
                        • Gas Scrubbing Unit
                        • Problems
                        • Treatment
                        • Hydrostatic Testing
                        • Video: Hydrostatic Testing
                        • Introduction
                        • Types of Water Used
                        • Problems Encountered
                        • Recommendations
                        • Discharging Hydrotest Waters
                        • Treatment
                        • Similar Applications
                        • Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors
                        • General
                        • Anti-Agglomerants 
                        • Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitors
                        • Emulsifying Surfactants
                        • Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitors
                        • Gas Dehydration & Glycol Regeneration
                      • Module 8 - The Successful Field Application Of A New Kinetic Hydrate Inhibitor

                        Contents:
                          • Physical Characteristics
                          • Performance of Poly (VIMA/VCAP) in Flow Loop
                          • Environmental Impact of EC6424A Poly(VIMA/VCAP)
                          • FREEFLOW Field Trials On-Land Applications
                          • EC6424A On-Land Field Trial in Alberta, Canada
                          • On-Land Field Trial I - Canada
                          • EC6423A On-Land Field Trial II in Alberta, Canada
                          • On-Land Field Trial II - Canada
                          • On-Land Field Trial III - East Texas 
                          • FREEFLOW Field Trials Offshore Applications
                          • EC6424A Offshore Field Trial I in GOM
                          • Offshore Field Trial  I - GOM
                          • EC6441A Offshore Field Trial II in GOM
                          • Offshore Field Trial  II - GOM
                          • EC6424A Offshore Field Trial III in GOM
                          • Offshore Field Trial  III - GOM
                          • EC6441A Offshore Field Trial IV in GOM
                          • Offshore Field Trial  IV - GOM
                          • Natural Gas Hydrates: Formation And Prevention
                          • Introduction
                          • The Chemistry of Gas Hydrates
                          • Video: Gas Hydrate Formation
                          • Performance Measurements
                          • Chemical Hydrate Inhibitors
                          • Development of the FreeFlow Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitor
                          • Field Application
                          • Conclusion
                          • Module Quiz
                        • Module 9 - Principles of Gas Processing

                          Contents:
                            • Separations
                            • Metering 
                            • Gas Gathering 
                            • Processing 
                            • Contaminants
                            • Water
                            • Hydrogen Sulfide
                            • Non-Combustible Inert Gases 
                            • Removal of Water
                            • Liquid Desiccants 
                            • Solid Bed Desiccants 
                            • Molecular Sieve Bed
                            • Solid Desiccant Dehydrators
                            • Methanol Injection
                            • Removal Of Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
                            • Chemical Reaction Processes 
                            • Membrane Separation Process
                            • Batch Processes
                            • Removal of Non-Combustible Inert Gases
                            • Principles of Gas Processing Operation
                            • Cryogenics
                            • Refrigeration
                            • Lean Oil Absorption
                            • Fractionation 
                            • Glycol Dehydration Unit Operation 
                            • Video: Glycol Dehydration Unit Operation 
                            • Liquid Desiccants
                            • Glycol Dehydration Process
                            • Gas Flow 
                            • Glycol Flow 
                            • Dew Point
                            • Dew Point Temperature 
                            • Dew Point Depression 
                            • Process Variables
                            • Inlet Gas Temperature
                            • Inlet Gas Pressure
                            • Gas Flow Rate 
                            • Inlet Glycol Temperature 
                            • Glycol Concentration 
                            • Glycol Circulation Rate 
                            • Module Quiz
                          • Module 10 - Glycol Dehydration Control

                            Contents:
                              • General
                              • Inlet Separator
                              • Contactor Column
                              • Gas-Condensate-Glycol Separator
                              • Filters
                              • Solids Removal 
                              • Dissolved Contaminants Removal 
                              • Regenerator
                              • Surge Tank
                              • Pumps
                              • Heat Exchangers
                              • Glycol/Gas Heat Exchanger
                              • Glycol/ lycol Heat Exchanger(s) 
                              • Glycol Conditioning Reducing Glycol Losses
                              • General
                              • Temperature and Pressure Conditions
                              • Inlet Gas Temperature 
                              • Inlet Glycol Temperature 
                              • Re-Boiler Temperature 
                              • Still Overhead Temperature 
                              • Heat Exchanger Temperature 
                              • Contactor Pressure 
                              • Regenerator Pressure
                              • Filter Pressure 
                              • G-C-G Separator Pressure
                              • Reducing Glycol Losses
                              • Glycol Tests
                              • Glycol Weight Percentage
                              • Water Content 
                              • Hydrocarbon Content 
                              • Salt Content 
                              • Solids Content
                              • PH
                              • Iron Content
                              • Foaming 
                              • Principles of Amine Sweetening 
                              • Video: Amine Sweetening Unit Operation
                              • Acid Gases in Natural Gas
                              • Gas Sweetening
                              • Alkanol Amines
                              • Absorption
                              • Distillation
                              • Heat Transfer
                              • Basic Process
                              • Amine Sweetning - Process Flow And Components
                              • Inlet Separator
                              • Contactor Column
                              • Flash Tank
                              • Filters
                              • Lean/Rich Heat Exchanger
                              • Stripper Column
                              • Reflux Condenser/Accumulator
                              • Re-Boiler
                              • Reclaimer
                              • Surge Tank
                              • Trim Cooler
                              • Module Quiz
                            • Module 11 - Safety

                              Contents:
                                • Fire and Explosion
                                • Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Awareness
                                • Nitrogen (N2) Awareness
                                • Personal Protective Equipment (P.P.E)
                                • Positive Isolation
                                • Safe Draining
                                • Vessel Entry
                                • Temporary Hose Connections
                                • Static Electricity
                                • Pyrophoric Iron Sulphide
                                • Purging
                                • Water Content of Gas
                                • Video: Gas Plant Safety Video
                              • Post-Test

                                Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.