Topic outline

  • Water Treatment - Advanced

    This course provides an advanced overview of water treatment for utility managers, mechanical engineers, civil engineers, water engineers, engineering managers, design consultants, utility managers, superintendents, supervisors and other senior technical staff
    • Training Methodology & Objectives

      Training Methodology

      This Trainee-centered course includes the following training methodologies:-

      • Talking presentation Slides (PPT with audio)
      • Simulation & Animation
      • Exercises
      • Videos
      • Case Studies
      • Gamification (learning through games)
      • Quizzes, Pre-test & Post-test

      Course Objectives

      After completing the course, the employee will:-

      Apply and gain an advanced knowledge on water treatment Explain the main purpose and function of water treatment facilities (sea water treatment process (SWTP), effluent water disposal and injection (EWDP) including water pressure maintenance plant (WPMP), water injection plant (MWIP), central injection pumping facility (CIPF), new water centre (NWC), etc.)
      Describe the operational modes and capacities for each facility and associated systems Describe process flow of each facility using PIDs (piping and instrument diagrams)
      Describe the basic control and protection systems applied in water treatment facilities Explain basic process parameters and variables (flow, level, pressure and temperature)
      Describe the requirements of water treatment facility operational procedures and standards for normal operations, equipment checks, monitoring, controlling, adjusting, starting, stopping and troubleshooting Identify the requirements for equipment and systems to carry out handover (preparation) for maintenance and reinstatement (return to service) after maintenance
      Illustrate engineering drawing, block diagram, process flow diagram, piping & instrumentation diagram and legends and symbols Read PFD & P&ID as well as apply filtration, media loading sequence, removal of dissolved mater, operating principle and the operation of valves, oil recovery, level gauge and regulator and ICP
      Recognize motor driven induced gas flotation system, ion exchange resins, cooling water treatment and cooling system characteristics Carryout corrosion control, microbiological control, fouling, boiler water treatment, boiler classification and water quality monitoring
      Employ surface handling treatment and identify the types of oil in water mixtures, emulsion and the factors affecting stability Apply water clarification processes, parallel plate separation process, reservoir souring, biocide treatment method and wastewater treatment and reuse
      Identify the common waste water contaminates including the typical chemical treatment for contaminant removal Carryout biological treatment, sludge treatment, control valve sizing, pigging operation and evaluation of coagulants
      Apply analytical methods, corrosion inhibitors selection, corrosion control, stream testing and guidelines for inhibitor selection Employ corrosion monitoring techniques, screening tests and prevention of galvanic corrosion
      Carryout hazard identification (HAZID), risk assessment techniques, inspection methods, pipeline integrity management and pipeline inspection and repairs Apply corrosion management, modification management, flow assurance, common maintenance strategy, equipment planning and maintenance management
      Carryout integrity management, continuous treatment, initial film establishment, corrosion inhibitors selection and corrosion control Discuss the guidelines for inhibitor selection, corrosion failure analysis, the effects of bacteria on drilling fluid properties and the factors affecting the rate of scale formation
      Manage carbonate scale, select scale inhibitors and prevent scale formation and scale removal Perform downhole injection methods, coiled tubing, cleaning pigs, hydrostatic testing, manual handling, hazard identification, process safety management and application of rupture disks
      Discuss operator basics, logsheet readings, valve recognition, lubrication and troubleshooting Determine passing relief valves, first failure recognition, insulation, rotating equipment, pumps, centrifugal, cavitation/priming, positive displacement and pump seals
      Identify instruments, air failure, line up instrument air, stroke checking a control valve and putting a control valve on bypass Check a pressure gauge and differential pressure (DP) cell as well as apply level measurement, temperature measurement, pressure measurement and flow measurement
      Perform minor maintenance, pressure rating, tightening a leaking gland and flange, opening a flange and re-gasketing a flange Clean a pump suction strainer and discuss reservoir souring, water flood function, water flood system and water flood plant major equipment
      Recognize lifting pumps, chlorinator unit, strainers, clarifier, sand filter, clearwall pumps, de-aerator and gas stripping Describe vacuum de-aeration, chemical removal of oxygen, discharge pump, injection pump, waterflood plant chemical treatment, waterflood plant injection water quality and key considerations for success
      • Course Description

        This E-Learning course is designed to provide participants with a detailed and up-to-date overview of advanced water treatment. It covers the engineering drawing, block diagram, process flow diagram, piping & instrumentation diagram and legends and symbols; the reading of PFD & P&ID; the filtration, media loading sequence, removal of dissolved mater, operating principle and the operation of valves, oil recovery, level gauge and regulator and ICP; the motor driven induced gas flotation system, ion exchange resins, cooling water treatment and cooling system characteristics; and the corrosion control, microbiological control, fouling, boiler water treatment, boiler classification and water quality monitoring
        Further, the course will also discuss the surface handling treatment and identify the types of oil in water mixtures, emulsion and the factors affecting stability; the water clarification processes, parallel plate separation process, reservoir souring, biocide treatment method and wastewater treatment and reuse; the common waste water contaminates including the typical chemical treatment for contaminant removal; the biological treatment, sludge treatment, control valve sizing, pigging operation and evaluation of coagulants; and the analytical methods, corrosion inhibitors selection, corrosion control, stream testing and guidelines for inhibitor selection
        During this interactive course, participants will learn the corrosion monitoring techniques, screening tests and prevention of galvanic corrosion; the hazard identification (HAZID), risk assessment techniques, inspection methods, pipeline integrity management and pipeline inspection and repairs; the corrosion management, modification management, flow assurance, common maintenance strategy, equipment planning and maintenance management; the integrity management, continuous treatment, initial film establishment, corrosion inhibitors selection and corrosion control; the guidelines for inhibitor selection, corrosion failure analysis, the effects of bacteria on drilling fluid properties and the factors affecting the rate of scale formation; managing carbonate scale; selecting scale inhibitors and preventing scale formation and scale removal; and the downhole injection methods, coiled tubing, cleaning pigs, hydrostatic testing, manual handling, hazard identification, process safety management and application of rupture disks
        • Module 1 - P&IDs & PFDs

          Contents:
            • Introduction
            • Block Diagram
            • Process Flow Diagram
            • Piping & Instrumentation Diagram
            • Video: How to Read Process Flow Diagrams (PFDs_PFS) - A Complete Tutorial
            • Abbreviations & Symbols
            • As Built Drawings
            • Orthographic Drawings
            • Isometric Drawings
            • Exploded Drawings
            • Module Quiz
          • Module 2 - Understanding Corrosion

            Contents:
              • Introduction
              • Corrosion Mechanism
              • Atmospheric Corrosion
              • Form of Corrosion
              • Uniform Corrosion
              • Pitting Corrosion
              • Galvanized Corrosion 
              • Erosion Corrosion
              • Cavitation Corrosion
              • Fretting Corrosion
              • Intergranular Corrosion
              • Exfoliation Corrosion
              • De-Alloying or Selective Leaching
              • Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
              • Video: Stress Corrosion Cracking
              • Corrosion of Metal
              • Corrosion of Alloy
              • Corrosion in Soil
              • Corrosion Inspection and Monitoring
              • How Does Corrosion Affect Our Lives 
              • How Does Corrosion Affect Profits
              • Four Parts of Corrosion Cell
              • Corrosion Cell
              • Corrosion Battery (Lead Acid Cell)
              • Factors Influencing Corrosion
              • How Corrosion Occurs
              • How to Control Corrosion
              • How Fast Will Corrosion Occur?
              • The Variation of Corrosion Rate With pH
              • Erosion Corrosion
              • Prevention of Erosion Corrosion 
              • Types of Corrosion
              • General Corrosion
              • Galvanic Attack
              • Galvanic Series
              • Galvanic Corrosion
              • Prevention of Galvanic Corrosion
              • Module Quiz
            • Module 3 - Corrosion Control Chemicals

              Contents:
                • Theory of Corrosion
                • Electromotive Force Series for Metals
                • The Corrosion Cell
                • Amine Fatty Acid
                • Corrosion Inhibitors
                • Definitions
                • Anodic Inhibitors
                • Cathodic Inhibitors
                • Organic Inhibitors
                • Corrosion Inhibitors Selection
                • Corrosion Control
                • The Advantages of Side–Stream Testing
                • Corrosion Inhibitors Selection 
                • Guidelines for Inhibitor Selection 
                • Selection of Corrosion Inhibitors
                • Inhibitor Application
                • Measuring and Monitoring Corrosion
                • Corrosion Monitoring Techniques
                • Corrosion Inhibitors 
                • Desirable Properties of a Corrosion Inhibitor 
                • Continuous Treatment 
                • Initial Film Establishment
                • Example 
                • Corrosion Inhibition
                • Factors Involved in Inhibitors Selection
                • Screening Tests
                • Static and Wheel Tests
                • Module Quiz
              • Module 4 - Refinery Corrosion

                Contents:
                  • What We Are Trying to Prevent
                  • What Caused This Fire?
                  • Cause of the Fire
                  • Why Did This Failure Occur There?
                  • Area Where the Fire Took Place
                  • The Cause of Corrosion
                  • Another Failure that Could Have Been Prevented
                  • Fatigue Cracking of Small Connections
                  • Small Connection Detail
                  • Instrumentation Connection that Failed by Fatigue
                  • Small Connection Failures
                  • Types of Low Temperature Refinery Corrosion
                  • Types of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Refineries
                  • Fire on the CFHU Starting at Instrumentation Tubing
                  • Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking
                  • Caustic Cracking
                  • Types of High Temperature Refinery Corrosion 
                  • High and Low Temperature Oxidation 
                  • An Example of High Temperature Oxidation 
                  • Corrosion Under Insulation
                  • The Role of Insulation
                  • Underground Corrosion
                  • Soil/Concrete–Air Interface Corrosion
                  • Underground Corrosion
                  • Crevice Corrosion
                  • Cavitation
                  • Wet H2S & Wet NH4SH Corrosion
                  • What Operators Can Do About NH4SH and H2S Corrosion
                  • Galvanic Corrosion
                  • Amine Corrosion
                  • Amine Corrosion – What You Can Do
                  • Mix Point Corrosion
                  • Acid Corrosion
                  • High Temperature Corrosion and Damage
                  • Polythionic Stress Corrosion Cracking on FCU 500
                  • Sensitization of the Stainless followed by Corrosion
                  • High Temperature Furnace Corrosion
                  • Furnace Reliability
                  • Control Valve % Open
                  • Out Temperature Fluctuations
                  • Creep Rupture
                  • H-3 Furnace on 11A Pipe Still
                  • Naphthenic Acid Corrosion
                  • Exceeding Process Limits - TAN Data on Feed to 12 Pipe Still
                  • Another High Temperature Problem – Weld Overlay Disbonding
                  • Sulfidic Corrosion
                  • Debutanizer Section of a Hydroformer
                  • Debutanizer Tower of a Ultraformer
                  • Temperature & Pressure Variations Over the Last Year
                  • Close-Up View of Largest Temperature Cycle
                  • Temperature Variations After Process Control Modifications RVP Input to the Reboiler Control Minimized
                  • What To Do About Process Variations
                  • Video: High Temperature Corrosion
                  • Modue Quiz
                • Module 5 - Corrosion Under Insulation at Whiting Refinery

                  Contents:
                    • Corrosion Under Insulation
                    • The Role of Insulation
                    • An Oxygen Concentration Cell on a Wet Surface
                    • Examples of CUI & Underground Corrosion 
                    • Icicle Safety Hazard
                    • VRU 100/200 Underground Corrosion
                    • Underground Corrosion
                    • Aspects of Underground Corrosion
                    • CUI Checklist for Identifying CUI
                    • CUI Checklist
                    • Video: Corrosion Under Insulation or CUI - Detailed Explanation
                  • Module 6 - Management & Monitoring

                    Contents:
                      • Corrosion Monitoring - Cost of Corrosion
                      • Corrosion Monitoring - Cost of Corrosion (Oilfield)
                      • Corrosion Monitoring - Oilfield Failure Cost
                      • Corrosion Monitoring - Oilfield Lost Production
                      • Corrosion Monitoring - Oilfield Environmental Cost
                      • Corrosion Monitoring - Oilfield Safety Cost
                      • Inspection, Survey, and Monitoring
                      • Corrosion Surveillance
                      • Corrosion Monitoring
                      • Corrosion Monitoring Philosophy
                      • Corrosion Monitoring Corrosion Cycle
                      • Corrosion Monitoring Corrosion Management
                      • Corrosion Monitoring Early Warning - Maintenance Strategies
                      • Corrosion Monitoring Techniques
                      • Video: Roxar FSM Log 48 Area Corrosion Monitor
                      • Module Quiz
                    • Module 7 - Kingdom of Microorganisms

                      Contents:
                        • Classification of Bacteria 
                        • Simplified Organic Degradation
                        • Sulfate Reduction
                        • Microbial Induced Souring
                        • Bacterial Population in Oilfield Systems
                        • Recognition of MIC (Direct)
                        • Sulfate Reducing Bacteria
                        • Problems Types of SRB 
                        • Salinity
                        • Redox 
                        • pH
                        • Water
                        • Morphology of Bacteria Microorganisms Microscopic Forms of Life
                        • Classes of Biocides
                        • Prevention of MIC 
                        • Media Bottles
                        • Corrosion Failure Analysis Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Corrosion
                        • Prevention of SRB Corrosion 
                        • Corrosion Failure Analysis Acid Producing Bacteria (APB) Corrosion
                        • Prevention of Acid Producing Bacteria Corrosion 
                        • Corrosion Failure Analysis Underdeposit Corrosion 
                        • Prevention of Underdeposit Corrosion
                        • Video: Underdeposit Corrosion
                        • Sulphate Reducing Bacteria
                        • Simplified Organic Degradation
                        • Embrittlement
                        • As the Iron Ions from the Anode Combine with the Sulphide Ions, an Iron Sulphide by-product is Created
                        • Acid Producing Bacteria (APB) 
                        • Anodic Reaction
                        • Cathodic Reaction
                        • Some SRB = APB They Produce Acid!
                        • Recognition of MIC (Direct)
                        • Microbially Influenced Corrosion Physical Appearance
                        • System Souring
                        • Plugging by Solids or Biofilm
                        • Microbial Problems in Drilling and Fracturing Fluids
                        • When polymer performance is lost it costs money:
                        • Effects of Bacteria on Drilling Fluid Properties
                        • Effects of Bacteria on Fracturing Fluid Properties
                        • Indicators of Bacterial Problems
                        • Module Quiz
                      • Module 8 - Biocide Selection Criteria

                        Contents:
                          • Biocides in Oilfield Systems
                          • Biocide Application Methods
                          • Biocides in Oilfield Systems
                          • Video: Biocides Presentation
                          • Ideal Biocide Treatment
                          • Mechanical and Operational Controls
                        • Module 9 - Scale Formation Mechanism

                          Contents:
                            • What is Scale?
                            • Types of Scale
                            • Where Does Scale Form?
                            • The Cost of Downhole Scale
                            • Health and Safety Issues
                            • Why Does Scale Form?
                            • Effect of Pressure on Carbonate Chemistry
                            • Scale: Interpretation of Results
                            • Ionic Composition of Some Formation Brines
                            • Changing Water Chemistry Introduces Different Scale Risks
                            • Overview of Scale Potential for a Field with Active Water Injection
                            • Scale Deposition
                            • Down Hole Scale 
                            • How Do We Manage Carbonate Scale?
                            • Case Study Effect of CaCo3 Scale on Well Productivity
                            • Key Points Case Study Final Result 
                            • How Do We Manage Sulphate Scale?
                            • How Do Inhibitors Work?
                            • Selection of Scale Inhibitors
                            • What is MIC?
                            • Where Do We Deploy Scale Inhibitors?
                            • Scale Inhibitor Squeeze Treatments
                            • Scale Inhibitor Squeeze Return
                            • Scale Inhibitor Squeeze Treatments
                            • Scale Inhibitor Squeeze Treatments Issues
                            • Scale Inhibitor Squeeze Deployment Issues
                            • Monitoring
                            • Pumps – How good are yours?
                            • Example of Single Zone Completion and BaSO4 Scale Management
                            • Scale
                            • Reactive Scale Control - Scale Removal
                            • Water Chemistry
                            • Exercise
                            • Module Quiz
                          • Module 10 - Scale Control

                            Contents:
                              • Production Damages
                              • Scales
                              • NORM Scales
                              • What’s Radioactive?
                              • Why in Scale?
                              • Scale Location
                              • Scale Prediction
                              • Scale Removal
                              • Paraffin Composition
                              • Deposits
                              • Deposition Location
                              • Video: How To Prevent Pipe Blockage And Remove Calcium Carbonate Deposits
                              • Wax
                              • Asphaltenes
                              • Asphaltenic Oil Stability
                              • Asphaltene Sources
                              • Asphaltene Stability
                              • What are Asphaltenes?
                              • Observations
                              • Microscopic Photos of Asphaltene Aggregation 
                              • Typical Oil Component Ranges
                              • Asphaltic Sludges
                              • Emulsions
                              • Types of Emulsions
                              • Emulsion Stability
                              • Energy Sources
                              • Types of Emulsions
                              • Stabilizers
                              • Coalescence 
                              • Fluid/Fluid Reactions
                              • Hydrates
                              • Hydrate Phase Behavior
                              • Retrograde Condensate Problem
                              • Hydrate Control Techniques and Common Practices
                              • Module Quiz
                            • Module 11 - Reservoir Souring & Sea Water Injection

                              Contents:
                                • Definition
                                • Why do Some Reservoirs Go Sour?
                                • Is Your Reservoir Really Going Sour?
                                • The Answers
                                • A Common Myth
                                • The UKCS Thistle Field
                                • Understanding the Problem
                                • Souring Map
                                • Mitigation Options
                                • Sea Water Injection (“Secondary Recovery”)
                                • Water Flood Function
                                • Water Flood Plant (Sea Water)
                                • Water Flood System Include 
                                • Water Flood Plant Major Equipment
                                • 1. Lifting Pumps
                                • 2. Chlorinator Unit
                                • 3. Strainers
                                • 4. Clarifier
                                • 5. Sand Filter
                                • Sand Filter Media 
                                • 6. Clearwall Pumps
                                • 7. De-Aerators
                                • A-Gas Stripping 
                                • B-Vacuum De-Aeration 
                                • Chemical Removal of Oxygen
                                • 9. Discharge Pump 
                                • 10. Injection Pump
                                • Waterflood Plant Chemical Treatment
                                • Waterflood Plant Injection Water Quality
                                • Key Considerations for Success
                                • Module Quiz
                              • Module 12 - Process Control and Process Safety: Operating Parameters

                                Contents:
                                  • Atmospheric Pressure
                                  • Pressure Exerted by Liquids 
                                  • Pressure Units
                                  • Pressure Scale 
                                  • Pressure Measurements 
                                  • Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauges
                                  • Diaphragm Pressure Gauges  
                                  • Pressure Transmitter 
                                  • Standard Transmitter Set Up Diagram 
                                  • Control Loop – Case Study 
                                  • Differential Pressure Transmitter 
                                  • Pressure Switches
                                  • Level
                                  • Dip Tapes and Dip Sticks 
                                  • Gauge Glasses 
                                  • Magnetic Float Indicators 
                                  • Differential Pressure Cells (DP Cells)
                                  • Displacer 
                                  • Back Pressure Method 
                                  • Ultrasonic Sound Waves Method
                                  • Nucleonic Level Measurement System
                                  • Level Switches 
                                  • Flow Measurement 
                                  • Introduction
                                  • Volumetric and Mass Flow Rate Flow 
                                  • Flow Patterns
                                  • Flow Measurement Devices 
                                  • Orifice Plate Flow Meter 
                                  • Venturi Tube Flow Meters 
                                  • Pitot Tube Flow Meters 
                                  • Turbine Flow Meters 
                                  • Paddle Wheel Flow Meters 
                                  • Ultrasonic Flow Meters 
                                  • Positive Displacement [PD] Flow Meters 
                                  • Variable Area Flow Meters 
                                  • Temperature Measurement
                                  • Temperature Units 
                                  • Measurement Devices 
                                  • Glass Capillary Thermometers
                                  • Bimetallic Thermometers 
                                  • Gas and Liquid Filled Thermometers 
                                  • Vapour Tension Thermometers 
                                  • Thermocouple
                                  • Resistance Temperature Devices (Rtds)
                                  • Radiation Temperature Detectors 
                                  • Temperature Switches
                                  • Video: Back to Basics: Flow Measurement
                                  • Module Quiz
                                • Module 13 - Process Chemistry

                                  Contents:
                                    • Hydrocarbon-Water Processing
                                    • Chemical Selection
                                    • The Ghost Field Problem
                                  • Module 14 - Case Studies

                                    Contents:
                                      • Case Study #1 Gupco Experience in the Injection Water Quality Control
                                      • Case Study #2 Paint System
                                    • Module 15 - Gemsa Case Studies

                                      Contents:
                                        • Case Study #1 Gemsa Case Study Executive Summary
                                        • Case Study #2 Gemsa Sampling Frequency Analysis
                                        • Case Study #3 Gemsa Sampling frequency
                                        • Case Study #4 Gemsa Water Injection
                                        • Case Study #5 Reviewing Gemsa Water Injection Plant
                                      • Module 16 - Water Injection Systems

                                        Contents:
                                          • A. Analytical Techniques
                                          • B. Water Injection System Inspection and Analyses
                                          • C. Scale Prediction Study
                                        • Post-Test

                                          Kindly complete the post-test to assess your knowledge about the topic after the course.